AP Bio: Chapter 41
Terms in this set (68)
The third stage of food processing in animals: the uptake of small nutrient molecules by an organism's body.
A digestive tract consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus; also called a complete digestive tract.
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of polypeptides.
An enzyme in saliva that hydrolyzes starch (a glucose polymer from plants) and glycogen (a glucose polymer from animals) into smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose.
A small, finger-like extension of the vertebrate cecum; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity.
A mixture of substances that is produced in the liver but stored in the gallbladder and that enables formation of fat droplets in water as an aid in the digestion and absorption of fats.
A lubricated ball of chewed food.
An animal that eats relatively large pieces of food.
An animal that mainly eats other animals.
The blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine.
A small globule that transports lipids. Chylomicrons are composed of fats mixed with cholesterol and coated with proteins.
The mixture of partially digested food and digestive juices formed in the stomach.
The largest section of the vertebrate large intestine; functions in water absorption and formation of feces.
complete digestive tract
A digestive tube that runs between a mouth and an anus; also called an alimentary canal.
The second stage of food processing in animals: the breaking down of food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.
The first section of the small intestine, where chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder as well as from gland cells of the intestinal wall.
The fourth and final stage of food processing in animals: the passing of undigested material out of the digestive system.
The process in digestion that splits macromolecules from food by the enzymatic addition of water.
A channel that conducts food, by peristalsis, from the pharynx to the stomach.
essential amino acid
An amino acid that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must be obtained from food in prefabricated form. Eight amino acids are essential in the human adult.
essential fatty acid
An unsaturated fatty acid that an animal needs but cannot make.
A substance that an organism must absorb in preassembled form because it cannot be synthesized from any other material. In humans, there are essential vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids.
The breakdown of food in compartments that are continuous with the outside of an animal's body.
The wastes of the digestive tract.
An animal that lives by sucking nutrient-rich fluids from another living organism.
A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis of microorganisms or particles to be used as food by the cell.
An organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into the small intestine.
A digestive fluid secreted by the stomach.
A central cavity with a single opening in the body of certain animals that functions in both the digestion and distribution of nutrients.
A hormone secreted by pancreatic alpha cells that raises blood glucose levels. It promotes glycogen breakdown and release of glucose by the liver.
hepatic portal vein
A large circulatory channel that conveys nutrient-laden blood from the small intestine to the liver, which regulates the blood's nutrient content.
An animal that mainly eats plants or algae.
The first stage of food processing in animals: the act of eating.
cell that makes inactive pepsin, cells of the stomach that produce peptinogen
secretes hydrochloric acid, cell of a gastric gland that secretes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
A hormone secreted by pancreatic beta cells that lowers blood glucose levels. It promotes the uptake of glucose by most body cells and the synthesis and storage of glycogen in the liver and also stimulates protein and fat synthesis.
The hydrolysis of food inside vacuoles.
A tiny lymph vessel extending into the core of an intestinal villus and serving as the destination for absorbed chylomicrons.
The tubular portion of the vertebrate alimentary canal between the small intestine and the anus; functions mainly in water absorption and the formation of feces.
The portion of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cords; also called the voice box.
The largest internal organ in the vertebrate body. The liver performs diverse functions, such as producing bile, preparing nitrogenous wastes for disposal, and detoxifying poisonous chemicals in the blood.
The long-term absence from the diet of one or more essential nutrients.
One of many fine, finger-like projections of the epithelial cells in the lumen of the small intestine that increase its surface area.
In nutrition, a simple nutrient that is inorganic and therefore cannot be synthesized.
A viscous and slippery mixture of glycoproteins, cells, salts, and water that moistens and protects the membranes lining body cavities that open to the exterior.
A longitudinal, flexible rod made of tightly packed mesodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a chordate in the dorsal part of the body.
The process by which an organism takes in and makes use of food substances.
An animal that regularly eats animals as well as plants or algae.
The mouth of an animal.
The consumption of more calories than the body needs for normal metabolism.
A gland with the following dual functions: The nonendocrine portion functions in digestion, secreting enzymes and an alkaline solution into the small intestine via a duct; the ductless endocrine portion functions in homeostasis, secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.
An enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins.
The inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by chief cells located in gastric pits of the stomach.
(1) Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining the alimentary canal that push food along the canal. (2) A type of movement on land produced by rhythmic waves of muscle contractions passing from front to back, as in many annelids.
(1) An area in the vertebrate throat where air and food passages cross. (2) In flatworms, the muscular tube that protrudes from the ventral side of the worm and ends in the mouth.
An enzyme that digests proteins by hydrolysis.
The terminal portion of the large intestine where the feces are stored until they are eliminated.
An animal, such as a cow or a sheep, with an elaborate, multicompartmentalized stomach specialized for an herbivorous diet.
A gland associated with the oral cavity that secretes substances to lubricate food and begin the process of chemical digestion.
The longest section of the alimentary canal, so named because of its small diameter compared with that of the large intestine; the principal site of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and the absorption of nutrients.
A ringlike valve, consisting of modified muscles in a muscular tube, that regulates passage between some compartments of the alimentary canal.
An organ of the digestive system that stores food and performs preliminary steps of digestion.
An animal that lives in or on its food source, eating its way through the food.
An aquatic animal, such as a sponge, clam, or baleen whale, that feeds by sifting small food particles from the water.
The portion of the respiratory tract that passes from the larynx to the bronchi; also called the windpipe.
A condition that results from a diet that consistently supplies less chemical energy than the body requires.
(1) A finger-like projection of the inner surface of the small intestine. (2) A finger-like projection of the chorion of the mammalian placenta. Large numbers of villi increase the surface areas of these organs.
An organic molecule required in the diet in very small amounts. Vitamins serve primarily as coenzymes or parts of coenzymes.