Chapter 32-Drugs for Bacterial Infections
Terms in this set (85)
An organism that can cause disease.
The ability of an organism to cause infection.
A common word used to describe a pathogen.
Bacteria that contain a thick cell wall and retain a purple color after staining. Staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci.
Bacteria that have thinner cell walls will lose the violet stain. Bacteroides, E. coli, klebsiella, pseudomonas, and salmonella.
Bacteria that thrive in an oxygen-rich environment.
Bacteria that grow best without oxygen.
A general term for any medication that is effective against pathogens.
A term used more frequently, but technically only refers to natural substances produced by microorganisms that can kill other microorganisms.
Medications that treat by killing bacteria.
Drugs that do not kill bacteria, but instead slow their growth.
Errors in the genetic code of bacteria.
Drug-resistant bacteria free to grow, in the presence of antibiotic therapy, and the client develops an infection that is resistant to conventional drug therapy.
The small pieces of circular DNA that are transferred through conjugation, which is passing on the resistance gene to other bacteria.
Infections acquired in a hospital or other healthcare setting.
Drugs that are effective against many different species of pathogens.
Drugs effective against only one or a restricted group of microorganisms.
culture and sensitivity testing
The process of growing out the pathogen and identifying the most effective antibiotic.
A common side effect of anti-infective therapy which occur when microorganisms normally present in the body are destroyed.
Normal microorganisms that inhabit the skin and the upper respiratory, genitourinary, and intestinal tracts.
Many bacterial cell walls contain this substance, that serves as a receptor for penicillin.
The portion of the chemical structure of penicillin that is responsible for its antibacterial activity.
Also called penicillnase, an enzyme secreted by bacteria which splits the beta-lactam ring. This allows these bacteria to become resistant to the effects of most penicillins.
Essential B-complex vitamin that is essential for cellular growth.
A reaction that can occur with rapid IV administration and includes hypotension with flushing and a red rash on the face and upper body.
In tuberculosis slow-growing mycobacteria usually become dormant, existing inside cavities called this.
Pathogens are organisms that cause disease owing to their ability to divide rapidly or secrete toxins.
Bacteria are described by their shape (bacilli, cocci, or spirilla), their ability to utilize oxygen (aerobic or anaerobic), and by their staining characteristics (gram positive or gram negative).
Anti-infective drugs are classified by their chemical structures (e.g., aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolone) or by their mechanism of action (e.g., cell-wall inhibitor, folic acid inhibitor).
Anti-infective drugs act by affecting the target organism's unique structure, metabolism, or life cycle and may be bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic.
Acquired resistance occurs when a pathogen acquires a gene for bacterial resistance, either through mutation or from another microbe. Resistance results in loss of antibiotic effectiveness and is worsened by the overprescribing of these agents.
Careful selection of the correct antibiotic, through the use of culture and sensitivity testing, is essential for effective pharmacotherapy and to limit adverse effects. Superinfections may occur during antibiotic therapy if too many host flora are killed.
Host factors such as immune system status, local conditions at the infection site, allergic reactions, age, and genetics influence the choice of antibiotic.
Penicillins, which kill bacteria by disrupting the cell wall, are most effective against gram-positive bacteria. Allergies occur most frequently with the penicillins.
The cephalosporins are similar in structure and function to the penicillins and are one of the most widely prescribed anti-infective classes. Cross-sensitivity may exist with the penicillins in some clients.
Tetracyclines have some of the broadest spectrums of any antibiotic class. They are drugs of choice for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus, cholera, Lyme disease, peptic ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial infections.
The macrolides are safe alternatives to penicillin. They are effective against most gram-postive bacteria and many gram-negative species.
The aminoglycosides are narrow-spectrum drugs, most commonly prescribed for infections by aerobic, gram-negative bacteria. They have the potential to cause serious adverse effects such as ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neuromuscular blockade.
The use of fluoroquinolones has expanded far beyond their initial role in treating urinary tract infections. All fluoroquinolones have activity against gram-negative pathogens, and newer drugs in the class have activity against gram-positive microbes.
Resistance has limited the usefulness of once widely prescribed sulfonamides to urinary tract infections and a few other specific infections.
A number of miscellaneous antibacterials have specific indications, distinct antibacterial mechanisms, and related nursing care.
Multiple drug therapies are needed in the treatment of tuberculosis, since the complex microbes are slow growing and commonly develop drug resistance.
Refers to natural substances.
Drugs responsible for killing infectious microorgansims.
Genetic errors that commonly occur in bacterial cells and result in drug resistance.
Antibiotics that are used against a wide variety of microorganisms.
Occurs secondarily to anti-infective therapy.
An enzyme secreted by bacteria that limits the therapeutic usefulness of penicillins.
A widely prescribed class of antibiotics, similar in structure and function to the penicillins.
Antibiotics that are safer alternatives to penicillin because they can generally be administered over a shorter time.
Narrow-specturm antibiotics that are useful for the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, but they also have the potential for producing ear and kidney toxicity.
Fluoroquinolone or miscellaneous
Gentamicin sulfate (Garamycin)
Neomycin sulfate (Mycifradin)
Doxycycline hyclate (Doryx)
Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)
Fluoroquinolone or miscellaneous
Pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, speticemia, endocarditis
Pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, bacteremia, endocarditis
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Traveler's diarrhea, UTI, bacteremia, endometriosis
Veneral disease, endometriosis
It is effective against a large number of organisms.
The value of using an antibiotic that is classified as a broad-spectrum antibiotic.
They kill the infectious agent.
The action of bacteriocidal drugs.
The advantage of using amoxicillin (Amoxil) over penicillin G.
The class of antibiotics is usually reserved for urinary tract infections and have serious adverse effects on hearing and kidney function.
The antibiotic that is known as the "last chance" drug, for treatment of resistant infections.
The antibiotic that would most likely be used for the dental client allergic to penicillin.
The type of drug that is effective against a large number of different species of bacteria.
Photosensitivity and teeth discoloration are potential adverse effects of this drug.
The drug of choice for the treatment of M. tuberculosis.
An antibiotic responsible for causing red-man syndrome as a side effect.
Mycobacteria have a cell wall that is resistant to penetration by anti-infective drugs.
Drug therapy of tuberculosis differs from that of most other infections by this way.
To determine which antibiotic is most effective against the infecting microorganism.
The purpose of culture and sensitivity testing.
The type of antibiotics that are more likely to cause superinfections.
The antibiotic class most widely used because of its higher margin of safety and effectiveness.
Two factors that contribute to acquired resistance.
Errors during replication of bacterial DNA and Overuse of antibiotics