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AP EURO ch 28
Terms in this set (68)
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
a radical dictatorship that exercises "total claims" over the beliefs and behavior of its citizens by taking control of the economic, social, intellectual, and cultural aspects of society. Used violent political repression and intense propaganda to gain complete power
Communist system under Stalin where the state used force to destroy the upper and middle classes. Soviet Communists strove to create an international brotherhood of workers where class differences would supposedly disapper, free of capitalist inequality
A movement charaterized by extreme, often expansionist nationalism, antisocialism, a dynamic and violent leader, and glorification of war and the military. Countered communist vision with ideal of a community rooted in the bonds of nationalism, working together to build a harmonious national community
A pseudoscientific doctrine that maintains the selective breeding of human beings can improve the general characteristics of a national population, which helped inspire Nazi ideas about "race and space" and ultimately contributed to the Holocaust
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953) Beat Trotsky out in struggle for power because he was more effective at gaining the all-important support of the party in the one-party state
five year plan
A plan launched by Stalin in 1928, and termed the "revolution from above," aimed at modernizing the Soviet Union and creating a new communist society with new attitudes, new loyalites, and a new socialist humanity
After the Russian civil war, there were riots by peasants and workers, and an open rebellion by previously pro-Bolshevik sailors at _____. Lenin repressed the rebels.
New Economic Policy
Lenin's 1921 policy to re-establish limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry in the face of economic disintegration. Politcal and economic success which was a necessary but temporary compromise with the peasant majority
collectivization of agriculture
The forcible consolidation of individual peasant farms into large state-controlled enterprises in the Soviet Union under Stalin
The better-off peasants who were stripped of land and livestock under Stalin and were generally not permitted to join collective farms; many of them starved or were deported to forced-labor camps for "re-education."
the State Planning Commission which oversaw Stalin's series of five year plans by setting production goals and controlling deliveries of raw and finished materials
he was the Leningrad Party boss, whose assassination was used to justify the "Great Terror"; a political opponent of Stalin's who was executed for being more popular that Stalin/talking about replacing Stalin. Was Stalin's number two man.
1936-1938 a series of spectacular public show trials in which false evidence, often gathered using torture, was used to incriminate party administratiors and Red Army leaders.
revolutionaries determined to create a new totalitarian state based on extreme nationalism and militarism
Italian Socialist Party
•Promoted a less authoritarian view of communism
•Sought to share power w/ Christian Democratic Party=murdered/kidnapped/bombed rightist groups
•Suffered from policy disputes + political scandals
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
Mussolini's private militia that destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist Party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of northern Italy
a political socialist who stood up against mussoini in pariaiment of his crimed and had proof that his accusaion were true. Kidnapped and murdered by fascist extremists
A 1929 agreement that recognized the Vatican as an independent state, with Mussolini agreeing to give the church heavy financial support in return for public support from the pope
A movement born of extreme nationalism and racism, led by Adolf Hitler, that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945 and forced Europe into the Second World War
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
Beer Hall Putsch
In 1923 the Nazis attempted to overthrow the government in Munich. It was a total failure, and Hitler received a brief prison sentence during which time he wrote Mein Kampf.
'My Struggle' by hitler, later became the basic book of nazi goals and ideology, with basic ideas on "racial purification" and territorial expansion that would define Nazis. Germans needed lebensraum (living space)and championed idea oof Fuhrer (leader-dictator)
German Chancellor from 1930 to 1932 and leader of the Catholic Centre Party. He led Germany at the height of the depression. His deflationary policies proved extremely unpopular. Tried to overcome the economic crisis by cutting back government spending and ruthlessly forcing down prices and wages. Dissolved the parliament
Rule in the constitution which allowed the central government to govern without the consent of the parliament.
President of Germany who died and was replaced by Hitler, this allowed Hitler to combine the powers of President and Chancellor to proclaim himself the Supreme head of State and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces
Seated Germany's lower house of Parlimrent, it burned in 1933 and Hitler blamed it on the communist, this event led to Hitler becoming the absolute dictator in Germany.
An act pushed through the Reichstag by the Nazis that gave Hitler absolute dictorial power for four years. Armed with this act, Nazis moved to smash or control all independent organizations with their deceitful stress of legality
German Labor front
State-controlled union that regulated the world of labor by using the workbook. Replaced independent labor unions which were abolished by the Nazis
Nazi Storm Troopers
The SA, a quasi-military band which fought Jews, social democrats, and communists, and eventually took over the army. Roughly 1000 leaders owuld be arrested and shot allowing the SS to rapidly grow
A policy that the Nazi Party instituted that was meant to force society to conform to National Socialist ideology
Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews & destroyed many jewish propertys
Hitler's plan to create an entire race of Aryans, Jews were fired from their jobs and expelled from school in order to cleanse the community. Many Jews were forced to sell their businesses to "racially pure" Germans.
a people's community for all racially pure Germans which organized mass organizations to spread Nazi ideology and enlist volunteers for Nazi cure
Germany's young men and women who joined the Nazi political party and pledged their allegiance to Germany and Adolf Hitler. The Hitler Youth organization "brainwashed" the children and convinced them of German superiority.
the people's car. Intended to link individual desires for consumer goods to collective ideology of people's community
The British policy toward Germany prior to World War II that aimed at granting Hitler whatever he wanted, including western Czechoslovakia, in order to avoid war
1936; close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini's lingering doubts about the Nazis.
Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler
Arthur Neville Chamberlain
British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany (1869-1940)
Britain, U.S,, and the Soviet Union were a coalition of unlikely but powerful allies and decisively defeated Axis powers
German lightning warfare. Characterized by highly mobility and concentrated forces at point of attack. Used against Poland and independent Baltic states.
Battle of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Hitler's program based on racial imperialism, which gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples; the French, an "infereior" Latin people, occupied a middle position, and Slavs and Jews were treated harshly as "subhumans"
The new government in France under German control. The regime promoted anti-Semitism, fear of foreigners, and promoted the ideals of Nazism among French sympathizers. The division of the government following victory of the Allies led to future quarrels in French government for decades later.
French leader of the Vichy republic of France, which was essentially Nazi France. He is seen as a traitor to his people by some Frenchman.
German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)
Polish Home Army
Poles organized secret classes and maintained a thriving underground press and this army was led by the government led in exile in London and passed intelligence about German operations to the Allies
The systematic effort of the Nazi state to exterminate all European Jews and other groups deemed racially inferior during the Second World War
the act of killing someone painlessly (especially someone suffering from an incurable illness). Mercy killing. An important step toward genocide
sections of towns and cities in which Jews were forced to live. Centralized urban areas with walled-off districts in cities large and small
final solution of the Jewish question-murder of every single Jew-had begun-mass arresting, and trafficking of Jews to the concentration camps-mass killings occurred as well in the gas chambers
complex of concentration, extermination and labor camps in poland. est in 1940. more than 1million jews murdered.
"A Jewish Italian chemist and writer. He is best known for If This Is a Man, published in the U.S. as Survival in Auschwitz, his account of the year he spent as a prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland."Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland."
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Japan offered to liberate Southeast-Asian countries from western colonial rule but instead used them as conquered land for natural resources
Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland
USSR's name for WWII. Powerful unifying force for the Soviet people who might as well defeated Germany without western help
Battle of El Alamein
where British forces stopped Rommel's German troops in North Africa, and forced Germans and Italians to surrender. TURNING POINT
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Hinge of fate
Quote by Churchill to describe the battle of El Alamein that cemented Allied victory
Battle of Stalingrad
a 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union thanks to harsh winter --> turning point of war in Eastern Europe
As Hitler's favorite architect, Speer was in charge of building cities and structures for Hitler and designing new cities envisioned after victory in WWII.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
a revolt that took place in April 1943 in the Warsaw Ghetto when the Germans attempted to deport the remaining inhabitants to Treblinka. The defense forces fought the Germans for 27 days before the ghetto was destroyed
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Japanese city devastated during World War II when the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Aug 8th, 1945.
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