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The idealogical movement of the early 20th century that favored on achieving political and social reform through education, wider political participation of all classes of society, and direct government action

16th amendment

authorizes a federal income tax

17th amendment

Direct election of U.S. senators

18th amendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages. Repealed in 1933

19th amendment

Gave women the right to vote.


Literary Leaders in the Progressive Era investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle) Awareness of social reform

Robert La Follette

created the Wisconsin Idea (as governor of Wisconsin) - regulated railroad, "direct-primary system!", increased corporate taxes, reference library for lawmakers

Eugene Debbs

leading socialist- led the ARL (American Railway Union), skilled and unskilled railroad workers, wanted to protect wages and rights, ran for President in the election of 1912 under the Socialist Party

Theodore Roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War.

Square Deal and Regulation

Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.

W.E.B. Du Bois

African American educator, editor, and writer; he led the Niagara Movement, calling for economic and educational equality for African Americans. He helped found the NAACP

Booker T. Washington

Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."

Plessy vs. Ferguson

seperate but equal. (1896) The Court ruled that segregation was not discriminatory (did not violate black civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendemnt) provide that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctorine

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force. U.S. was granted the right to intervene militarily in neighboring countries in cases of "chronic wrong-doing" such as not paying debts or failure to maintain order. This made the U.S. an "international police power."

William Howard Taft

(1908-1912), was endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn't appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet, actively pursued anti-trust law suits, appoints Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger opposed conservation and favored business interests, Taft fires Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. forestry), ran for re-election in 1912 but lost to Wilson

Dollar Diplomacy

Foriegn Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies. Prefers to invest in American Dollars in other countries.

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize

Underwood Tariff Act

lowered tariff rates by 1/3 and levied the first regular federal income tax

Federal Reserve Act

This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today. Dollar Bill!

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

Strengthened the Sherman Anti-trust Act, Exempts labor unions from anti-trust laws, and explicitly legalizes labor practices like strikes and boycotts

Federal Trade Commission Act

made law in 1914. empowered a presidentally appointed comission, The Federal Trade Commission, to monitor interstate industries. expected to crush monopolies at the root by attacking unfair trade practices and unlawful competition. another Wilsonian progressive attack.

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