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forming societies in which large numbers of individuals divide labor and cooperate for mutual benefit
principle stating that animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated/thwarted
a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership
when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values
diffusion of responsibility
individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
the process by which evolution selects for indivuals who cooperate with their relatives
behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction
the hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits
the cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship
Asch Conformity study
Research suggests that answer would depend, in part, on how other people in the room answered the same question
Stanley Milgram Study
If learner made a mistake, teacher (participant) would press a button that delivered an electric shock. 80% of participants continued to shock learner even after he screamed, complained, pleaded and fell silent
invented the Laff Box because suspected that television viewers would think a show was funny if they heard other people laughing
the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason; assumes people will be more persuaded when evidence and arguments are strong rather than weak
the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion; assumes rather than weighing evidence and analyzing arguments, people will often use heuristics (simple shortcuts) to help them decide whether to believe a communication
an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs
medial prefrontal cortex
area in brain that is activated when you think about the attributes of other people but not about the attributes of inanimate objects such as houses or tools; remains active all the time
the process by which we draw inferences about others based on knowledge of the categories to which they belong
the tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them
when we decide that a person's behavior was caused by some temporary aspect of the situation in which it happened ("he was lucky that the wind carried the ball into the stands")
when we decide that a person's behavior is caused by his or her relatively enduring tendency to think, feel, or act in a particular way ("he's got a great eye and a powerful swing")
the tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behavior was caused by the situation
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