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60 terms

Ch. 13

social psychology
the study of the causes and consequences of sociality
social cognition
how people understand each other
forming societies in which large numbers of individuals divide labor and cooperate for mutual benefit
4 species that are ultra-social
hymenoptera, termites, naked mole rats, and us
behavior whose purpose is to harm another
frustration-aggression hypothesis
principle stating that animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated/thwarted
The single best predictor of aggression is ________.
behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit
a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others
a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership
a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership
when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values
diffusion of responsibility
individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself
kin selection
the process by which evolution selects for indivuals who cooperate with their relatives
reciprocal altruism
behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
mere exposure effect
the tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking
passionate love
an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction
companionate love
an experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well-being
social exchange
the hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits
comparison level
the cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship
a state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughtly equal
social influence
the ability to control another person's behavior
Three basic motivations to social influence
hedonic motive, approval motive, accuracy motive
hedonic motive
people are motivated to experience pleasure and to avoid experiencing pain
approval motive
motivated to be accepted and to avoid being rejected
accuracy motive
people are motivated to believe what is right and to avoid believing what is wrong
customary standards for behavior that are widely shared by members of a culture
normative influence
another person's behavior provides information about what is appropriate
norm of reciprocity
the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them
door-in-the-face technique
is a strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behavior
the tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it
the tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do
Asch Conformity study
Research suggests that answer would depend, in part, on how other people in the room answered the same question
Stanley Milgram Study
If learner made a mistake, teacher (participant) would press a button that delivered an electric shock. 80% of participants continued to shock learner even after he screamed, complained, pleaded and fell silent
an enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event
an enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event
informational influence
another person's behavior provides information about what is good or right
Charlie Douglass
invented the Laff Box because suspected that television viewers would think a show was funny if they heard other people laughing
a person's attitutes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person
systematic persuasion
the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason; assumes people will be more persuaded when evidence and arguments are strong rather than weak
heuristic persuasion
the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion; assumes rather than weighing evidence and analyzing arguments, people will often use heuristics (simple shortcuts) to help them decide whether to believe a communication
a technique that involves a small request followed by a larger request
cognitive dissonance
an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs
medial prefrontal cortex
area in brain that is activated when you think about the attributes of other people but not about the attributes of inanimate objects such as houses or tools; remains active all the time
social cognition
the processes by which people come to understand others
the process by which we draw inferences about others based on knowledge of the categories to which they belong
Four properties of stereotypes
inaccurate, overused, self-perpetuating and automatic
perceptual confirmation
the tendency for people to see what they expect to see
self-fulfilling prophecy
the tendency for people to cause what they expect to see
the tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them
inferences about the causes of people's behaviors
situational attributions
when we decide that a person's behavior was caused by some temporary aspect of the situation in which it happened ("he was lucky that the wind carried the ball into the stands")
dispositional attributions
when we decide that a person's behavior is caused by his or her relatively enduring tendency to think, feel, or act in a particular way ("he's got a great eye and a powerful swing")
covariation model
we use three kinds of information: consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus
consistency information
information about the regularity of action
distinctiveness information
information about the generality of action
consensus information
information about the typicality of action
correspondence bias
the tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behavior was caused by the situation
actor-observer effect
the tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others