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53 terms

Nutrition - Chpt. 5 Lipids

some definitions and quesitons
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Lipids
a family of compunds that includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols. They are classified by their solubility in water. (Also includes the fat-soluble vitamins)
fats
lipids that are solid at room temperature
oils
lipids that are liquid at room temperature
fatty acid
an organic compound composed of a carbon chain with hydrogens attached and an acid group (COOH) at one end and a methyl (CH3) at the other end.
monounsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lacks two hydrogen atoms and has one double bond between carbons-for example, oleic acid. Composed of triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids or monounsaturated.
point of unsaturation
the double bond of a fatty acid, where hydrogen atoms can easily be added to the structure.
polyunsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lacks four or more hydrogen atoms and has two or more double bonds between carbons-for example linoleic acids, a fatty acid that lacks 4 or more H atoms & has 2 or more double bonds between C's (Ex: linoleic acid (2 double bonds) and Linolenic acid (3 double bonds)
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid carrying the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms - stearic acid
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lack hydrogen atoms and has atleast one double bond between carbons
linoleic acid
Fatty acid with 18 carbons and two double bonds (Omega-6)
linolenic acid
an essential fatty acid with 18 carbons and three double bonds (Omega-3)
omega-3 fatty acid
an unsaturated fatty acid with the first double bond on the THIRD carbon from the methyl end (-CH3)
omega-6 fatty acid
a polyunsaturated fatty acid in which the first double bond is six carbons from the methyl end of the carbon chain
triglycerides
Lipids containing a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid chains; chemical form in which most fats exist in food and in the body
glycerol
A three-carbon alcohol used to form triglycerides
oxidation
the process of a substance combining with oxygen; resulting in a loss of electrons
antioxidants
prevents delays oxidation
hydrogenation
a chemical process that adds hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated fatty acids to reduce the number of double bonds making it more solid and more resilient to oxidation.
trans-fatty acid
fatty-acids with hydrogens on the other side of the double bonds
phospholipid
similar to triglycerides but have a phosphate group and choline in place of one of the fatty-acids
lecithin
a yellow phospholipid essential for the metabolism of fats
choline
a nitrogen containing compound found in foods and made in the body from the amino acid methione. Is part of the phospholipid lecithin and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
sterols
lipids that are composed of three six carbon rings and one five carbon ring fused together forming the basic structure for cholesterol, bile salts and many hormones such as cortisols, estrogens, androgens, and progesterones
cholesterol
one of the sterols containing a four ring carbon structure with a carbon side chain
plaque
accumulation of fatty deposits
atherosclerosis
type pf artery disease characterized by plaques on the inner wall
hydrophobic
non-water soluble
hydrophilic
water soluble
monoglyceride
glycerol with one fatty acid attached
micelles
tiny spherical complexes of emulsified fat that arise during digestion
chylomicrons
the class of lipoproteins that transport lipids form the intestinal cells to the rest of the body
lipoproteins
clusters of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicles the rest of the body
Very-low-density lipoproteins
VLDL; type of lipoprotein made primarily by the liver cells to transport lipids to various tissue cells in the body; composed primarily of triglycerides
low-density lipoproteins
LDL; derived from VLDL lipoproteins as VLDL triglycerides are removed and broken down; composed primarily of cholesterol
high-density lipoproteins
HDL; lipoprotein that transports cholesterol back to the liver from the cells; composed primarily of protein
adipose tissue
the body's fat tissue; consists of masses of triglyceride-storing cells
adipokines
proteins synthesized and secreted by adipose cells
essential fatty acids
fatty acids needed by the body but not made by it in amounts sufficient enough to meet physiological needs
arachidonic acid
A polyunsaturated fatty acid, 20 carbons, 4 double bonds, omega-6 fatty acid
EPA
eicosapentaenoic acid; polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega-3, 5 double bonds, 20 carbons
DHA
polyunsaturated, an omega-3 fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms and 6 double bonds, cholesterol control: omega 3 fatty acids
eicosanoids
Derived from arachidonic acid (a 20 carbon fatty acid); regulates blood pressure, blood clotting, and other bodily functions
lipoprotein lipase
LPL; , an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides passing by in the bloodstream and directs their parts into the cells, where they can be metabolized for energy or reassembled for storage.
hormone-sensitive lipase
The enzyme that breaks down the triglycerides stored in adipose tissue.
blood lipid profile
results of blood tests that reveal a person's total cholesterol, trigycerides, and various lipoproteins.
cardiovascular disease
a disease of the heart or blood vessels
fat replacers
ingredients that replace some or all of the functions of fat and may or may not provide energy
artificial fats
zero energy fat replacers that are chemically synthesized to mimic the sensory and cooking qualities of naturally occuring fats but are totally or partially resistant to digestion
olestra
a synthetic fat made from sucrose and fatty acids that provides o kcalories per gram also know as sucrose polyester
95%
Of the lipids in food, what percent are triglycerides?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Fatty acids and triglycerides are composed of __________, ___________, and ___________
Glycerol, fatty-acids
Triglycerides are composed of _________ and _______
Omega
The position of the double bond is determined by the ________ number.