AS Forensic Set 3: Fingerprints

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arch
The simplest type of fingerprints that are formed by ridges that enter on one side of the print and exit on the other.
core
The center of a loop or whorl.
delta
A triangular ridge pattern with ridges that go in different directions above and below the triangle.
finger pad
Fleshy surface of your fingers that you use for gripping.
fingerprint
An impression left on any surface that consists of patterns made by the ridges on a finger.
latent fingerprint
An invisible fingerprint made by the deposit of oils and/or perspiration. Made visible through powders or special tapes.
loop
Fingerprint pattern in which the ridge pattern flows inward and returns in the direction of origin
grooves
Narrow valleys on the finger pad
friction ridges
High points or lines on the finger pad. The key to our ability to grip everything.
Marcello Malpighi 1685 AD
First person to recognize fingerprint patterns using terms-loops and whorls.
Johannes Purkinje 1823 AD
Establishes nine basic fingerprint patterns-forms the basis of modern fingerprint classification system.
Sir William Herschel 1858 AD
Uses hand prints as part of signing contracts to prevent fraud. Finds his print unchanged after 50 years.
Henry Faulds 1880 AD
Finds that fingerprints can be used in personal identification-suggests using to identify criminals.
Sir Francis Galton 1892 AD
First fingerprint text book published, that same year Argentina becomes first country reporting use of fingerprints to directly solve a crime.
Sir Edward Henry 1899 AD
The classification system based on five types of prints developed. Used today in USA and UK.
Thomas Jennings 1910 AD
First person convicted in the USA based on fingerprint evidence. A landmark case for use of fingerprints as courtroom evidence.
bertillionage
System of identification created by Alphonse Bertillion. A form of anthropometry used as an identification system from 1883-1903.
Anthropometry
The science of measuring humans.
AFIS 1960 AD
The Automated Fingerprint Identification System
patent print
Prints occurring in blood, ink, paint, dirt, or grease- an easily visible print.
plastic print
Occur in a 3D object- wax, putty, clay, soap, caulk, dust.