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Bio Chapter 15 QUIZ flashcard (use for FRIDAY 12/4
Terms in this set (70)
Allowing only those animals desire characteristics to produce the next generation.
Nearly all domestic animals have been produced by
What does Selective breeding take advantage of
Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms
The continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics. Inbreeding helps to ensure that the characteristics that make each breed unique will be preserved.
T or F
Inbreeding increases the genetic defect between two individuals
What is used to separate DNA fragments
What cut DNA into fragments
What happens during Gel Electrophoresis
DNA is cut by Restriction Enzymes
DNA Fragments are poured into a gel and an electric voltage moves the DNA across the gel. The longer fragments of the gel move slower so they do not migrate as far as the shorter fragments of DNA. DNA fragments make a pattern of bands on the gel.
The order of colored bands on the gel tells the exact _________ of bases in the DNA
Breeders can increase the genetic variation in a population by inducing ______, which are the ultimate source of genetic variability.
Cells that have many sets of chromosomes
T or F
Polyploidy is good for animals
It is fatal for animals; plants handle better
The cells are opened and the DNA is separated from the other cell parts
What do scientist use to cut DNA molecules because they are too large to be analyzed
Hundreds of restriction enzymes are known; each one cuts DNA at a specific sequence of ____________
Short DNA sequences can be assembled using laboratory machines known as DNA ______
Produced by combining DNA from different sources
Can reproduced millions of copies
Polymerase cHain Reaction (PCR)
A cell takes in DNA from outside the cell. This external DNA becomes a component of the cell's DNA
Foreign DNA is first joined to a small, circular DNA molecule known as a
Where are plasmids found
Naturally in some bacteria
2 Features of a plasmid
1) Has a DNA sequence that helps promote plasmid replication; Ensures it will be replicated
2) Genetic marker <-- don't need to know
Many plant cells can be transformed by inserting a piece of new DNA into a
(ANIMALS CELLS) Many egg cells are large enough that DNA can be directly injected into the ________
Enzymes normally responsible for DNA repair and recombination insert the foreign DNA into the ________ of the injected cell
Contain genes from other species
Reproduce rapidly and are easy to grow, transgenic bacteria now produce a host of important substances useful for health and industry
Used to study genes and to improve the food supply
An important part of our food supply
A member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
Cloned colonies of bacteria and other microorganisms are easy to grow, but this is not always true of _____________
Containing genes from another species
Method of breeding that allows only those organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation
breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the derived characteristics of a kinds of organism
the process of manipulating organisms, cells, or molecules to produce specific products
the technique used by biologists to make copies of a particular gene
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
small, circular piece of DNA located in the cytoplasm of many bacteria
term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms
member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
process of changing to treat a medical disease or disorder. An absent or faulty gene is replaced by a normal working gene
glass slide or silicon chip that carries thousands of different kinds of single-stranded DNA fragments arranged in a grid. A DNA microarray is used to detect and measure the expression of thousands of genes at one time.
tool used by biologists that analyzes an individual's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments; used to determine whether two samples of genetic materials are from the same person
scientific study of crime scene violence
What is selective breeding used for?
Humans use selective breeding, which takes advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation, to pass wanted traits on to the next generation of organisms.
How do people increase genetic variation?
Breeders can increase the genetic variation in a population by introducing mutations, which are the ultimate source of biological diversity.
How do scientists copy the DNA of living organisms?
The first step in using the polymerase chain retain method to copy a gene is to heat a piece of DNA, which separates its two strands. Then, as the DNA cools, primers bind to the single strands, Next, DNA polymerase starts copying the region between the primers. These copies can serve as templates to make still more copies.
How is recombinant DNA use?
Recombinant DNA technology-joining together DNA from two or more sources-makes it possible to change the genetic composition of living organisms
How can genes from one organisms be inserted into another organism?
Transgenic organisms can be produced by the insertion of recombinant DNA into the genome of a host organism.
How can genetic engineering benefit agriculture and industry?
Ideally, genetic modification could lead to better, less expensive, and more nutritious food as well as less harmful manufacturing processes
How can recombinant DNA technology improve human health?
Today, recombinant DNA technology is the source of some of the most important and exciting advances in the prevention and treatment of disease
How is DNA used to identify individuals?
DNA fingerprinting analyzes sections of DNA that may have little or no function but that vary widely from i.e. individual to another
What privacy issues does biotechnology raise?
Do you have exclusive rights to your DNA? Should you, like patent holders, be able to keep your genetic information confidential?
Are GM foods safe?
Careful studies of such food have provided no scientific support for concerns about their safety, and it does seem that foods made from GM plants are safe to eat. Even if GM food itself presents no hazards, there are many serious concerns about the unintended consequences that a shift to GM farming and ranching may have on agriculture.
Should genetic modifications to humans and other organisms be closely regulated?
Just because we have the technology to modify an organisms characteristics, are we justified in doing so?
____________ consists of allowing only those organisms with particular characteristics to produce the next generation
In the process called _______, dissimilar organisms are crossed in order to obtain bigger or stronger offspring
When organisms that are genetically similar are crossed over and per to produce the next generation, the process is called ______
________ is the application of a technological process, invention or method to living organisms
THe technology that makes copies of DNA is called ______
The DNA that results from the transfer of DNA from one organisms into another is ___________
The small, circular DNA molecule in a bacterial cell is a ______
Hybridization and inbreeding are both type of _______
Because of their replication process, plasmids are excellent carries of __________
Genetic engineers can transfer _________ from one organism to another
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