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Notes on civil rights

Great Migration

movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

Roaring Twenties

the decade of the 1920's which got this nickname because of the times presperity and excitement

Harlem Renaissance

a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished

Aaron Douglas

A Harlem Renaissance painter whose work celebrates African American versatility and adaptability, depicting people in a variety of settings.

Song of the Towers

Aaron Douglas, 1934

Langston Hughes

This man was well known for making the Harlem Renaissance famous because of his poems.

I too, Sing America

Langston Hughes

Negro Speaks of Rivers

Langston Hughes

Zora Neale Hurston

African American writer and folklore scholar who played a key role in the Harlem Renaissance

Their Eyes Were watching God

Zora Neale Hurston


the act of firing weapons or artillery at an enemy

Duke Ellingtion

pianist, composer, arranger, and bandleader born in Washington DC

Louis Armstrong

United States jazz trumpeter and bandleader (1900-1971)

Josephine Baker

African-American actress, singer, opera performer, first black women to star in major motion picture; she moved to France


a style of dance music popular in the 1920s

Cotton Club

a speak easy where blacks played but could not be apart of the audience

Apollo Theater

Considered to be the most important African American theater in the U.S.

Great Depression

the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s

Eleanor Roosevelt

wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962)

Black Cabinet

group of African Americans FDR appointed to key Government positions; served as unofficial advisors to the president.

Mary Bethune

United States educator who worked to improve race relations and educational opportunities for Black Americans (1875-1955)

Congress of Industrial Organizations

a federation of North American industrial unions that merged with the American Federation of Labor in 1955

John L. Lewis

long-time labor leader who organized and led the first important unskilled workers labor union, called in to represent union during sit-down strike

A. Philip Randolph

Black leader, who threatens a march to end discrimination in the work place; Roosevelt gives in with companies that get federal grants.

Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters

Union founded by A.Philip Randolph in 1925 to help African Americans who worked for the Pullman Company.

Executive Order 8802

In 1941 FDR passed it which prohibited discriminatory employment practices by fed agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work. It established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy.

Double V Campaign

The World War II-era effort of black Americans to gain "a Victory over racism at home as well as Victory abroad."

Truman's Fair Deal

extension of new deal goals;promoted full employment, higher minimum wage,greater social security, and housing assistance

Executive Order 9981

Establishes equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all race, religions, or national origins

Jackie Robinson

United States baseball player

Plessy vs Ferguson

a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal"

Separate but Equal

Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.

Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka Kansas

1954. Determined that "separate but equal" educational facilities denied equal educational opportunities. Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896. Paved way for integration and the civil rights movement.

Oliver Brown

sued kansas board of education in the brown v. the board of education

Linda Brown

Black girl who was refused enrollment in the closest school to her house because of segregation.

Thurgood Marshall

American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.

Doll Test

Marshall put a black and White doll in a black school and in a white school. both schools said the white one was better because of its skin color

Brown II

another case issued by the Supreme Court, implementing the order from 1954, ruling that communities must work to desegregate their schools with all deliberate speed, but set no timetable and left specific decisions up to lower courts.

Dejure Segregation

segregation by law

Warren Court

the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism

Emmett Till

Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. his death led to the American Civil Rights movement.

Little Rock Central High School

Was the site of forced desegregation in 1957 when the governor of Alabama wouldn't allow the "Little Rock nine" access to the school. President Eisenhower then mobilized the 101st airborne division to force the school to admit the students.

Little Rock Nine

In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.

Governor Faubus

The governor of Arkansas who tried to halt integration by calling in the Arkansas National Guard.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

leader of the Allied forces in Europe then was elected to be Pres. of the USA

101st Airborne Division

army division sent to Little Rock to prevent violence and protect LR 9 from harassment and bullying

Rosa Parks

United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

An African-American Civil Right's Activist who was peaceful. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his cause. He was assasinated in 1968 in Tennesee

Civil Disobedience

a group's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination)

Montgomery Alabama Bus Boycott

the first organized movement by african americans to fight segregation; intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. Many historically significant figures of the civil rights movement were involved in the boycott

Congress of Racial Equality

an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality


Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success


Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such

Greensboro Sit-in

black students politely order food from restraunt, not served, sat in place for days & days, gathering supporters.

Freedom Rides

a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961

Voter Education Project

project of the SNCC where volunteers went to rural areas in the Deep South to register African Americans to vote; began with Robert Moses

Selma March

three marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement.

Letter From Birmingham Jail

A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.

March on Washington

held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally

I Have a Dream Speech

mlk, march on washington, in front of washington monument pool

John F. Kennedy Assassination

22 November 1963

Dallas Texas

the city where John F. Kennedy was assasinated

Lee Harvey Oswald

United States assassin of President John F. Kennedy (1939-1963)

Lydon Baines Johnson

This Vice President was sworn in on Air Force One as the 36th President of the United States.

War on Poverty

President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly

Great Society

President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.

Economic Opportunity Act 1964

established an Office of Economic Opportunity to provide young Americans with job training and created a volunteer network devoted to social work and impoverished areas

Head Start

A program funded by the federal government and designed to prepare children to start school; provides locally run child care to lower-income and disadvantaged children from birth to five years old

Job Corps

a work training programe for young people between the ages of 16 and 21


health care for the aged


the government insurance program for low-income individuals & familys that is funded both by the federal government & each individual state

Civil Rights Act of 1964

This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap

24th Amendment

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.

Executive Order 11246

prohibits discrimination with govt contracts exceeding $10 000, affirmative action when > $50 000

Kerner Report

This commission, chaired by Otto Kerner, decided that the race riots were due to the formation of two different American cultures: inner-city Blacks and suburban Whites.

Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

Group that sent its own delegates to the Democratic National Convention in 1964 to protest discrimination against black voters in Mississippi

Fanny Lou Hamer

helped organize freedom summer for the SNCC

I am sick and tired

Rosa Parks

Elijah Muhammad

leader of Black Muslims who campaigned for independence for Black Americans (1897-1975)

Nation of islam

a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans

Malcolm X

militant civil rights leader (1925-1965)

Garvey's Back to Africa Movement

Garvey wanted African Americans to go back to Africa he supported segregation although he was black.

Watts Riots

1964 riots which started in an African-American ghetoo of Los Angeles and left 30 dead and 1,000 wounded. Riots lasted a week, and spurred hundreds more around the country.

Assassination of Malcolm X

February 21, 1965, the black leader Malcolm X was assassinated as he started to address a rally in New York City

Stokely Carmicheal

leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commitee, preached black power and wanted to destroy everything the western civilization has created

Black Power

the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business., the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business., the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.

Black Panthers

a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites

Assassination of Dr.Martin Luther King

April 4, 1968 at the Lorraine Motel, Memphis, TN

James Earl Ray

convicted of killing Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 and sentenced to 99 years in jail

Memphis Tennessee

where Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated

Women's Liberation Movement

1960s to present. argued that the traditional family form is oppressive for women and children. takes away womens independence and that we need to start looking at families differently (REINVISIONING THE FAM)

United Farm Worker's Movement

The United Farm Workers Movement was a political movement in the United States that intended to provide greater rights for farmworkers throughout the country and was headed by several organizations and labor unions, most notably the United Farm Workers of America. Initially named the "National Farm Workers Association," the United Farm Workers of America was started by Cesar Chavez in 1962. The labor union soon began to campaign for greater rights of farm workers, especially in areas with large populations of migrant workers such as California. Beginning in the mid-1960's and continuing throughout the subsequent decades, the United Farm Workers was successful in providing higher wages and greater benefits for farmworkers throughout the country using the tactics of protests, strikes, and boycotts

Disabilities Movement

The disability rights movement is the movement to secure equal opportunities and equal rights for people with disabilities. The specific goals and demands of the movement are: accessibility and safety in transportation, architecture, and the physical environment, equal opportunities in independent living, employment, education, and housing, and freedom from abuse, neglect, and violations of patients' rights.[1] Effective civil rights legislation is sought in order to secure these opportunities and rights.[1][2]

Floor marker for disabled people in Narita Airport, Japan
For people with physical disabilities accessibility and safety are primary issues that this movement works to reform. Access to public areas such as city streets and public buildings and restrooms are some of the more visible changes brought about in recent decades. A noticeable change in some parts of the world is the installation of elevators, automatic doors, wide doors and corridors, transit lifts, wheelchair ramps, curb cuts, and the elimination of unnecessary steps where ramps and elevators are not available, allowing people in wheelchairs and with other mobility impairments to use public sidewalks and public transit more easily and more safely

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