47 terms

Chapter 12

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Terms in this set (...)

Nucleosome
One bead consiting of DNA wound twice around a protein core of eight histone
The function of the mitotic cell cycle is to produce daughter cells that.....
Are genetically identical to the parent cell assuming no mutation has occurred
Where do sister chromatids end up after cytokinesis
Both of the sister chromatids end up in the same daughter cell after cytokinesis has occurred
The complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome is properly called
Chromatin
The centromere is a region in which
Sister chromatids are attached to one another in prophase
How many maternal chromosomes are present in the somatic human cell not engaged in cell division
23
Chromatids are
Identical copies of each other IF they are part of the same duplicated chromosome
If a cell contains 60 chromatids at the start of mitosis, how many chromosomes will be found in each daughter cell at the completion of the cell cycle
30
A biochemist measured the amount of DNA in cells growing in the laboratory and found that the quantity of DNA in the cells doubled......
Between G1 and G2
During interphase, the genetic material or a typical eukaryotic cell is
Dispersed in the nucleus as long strands of chromatin
DNA replication occurs in
The S (synthesis) phase of interphase
If a human somatic cell is just about to divide, it has
92 chromosomes
Down syndrome is characterized by cells having 3 copies of chromosome 21....as a cell in an individual with Down syndrome prepares to enter mitosis how many chromarids would be present?
94
Cells from an individual with Down syndrome would have 23 pairs of chromosomes, plus an extra chromosome for a total of 47, which would be 94 chromatids
What does not occur during mitosis
Replication if chromosomes, that occurs in the S phase.
During which phase in the cell cycle would you find the most DNA per cell
G2
Genome
A cells endowment of DNA, it's genetic info
Chromosome
What DNA is built into
Chromatin
The entire complex of Dana and proteins that is the building material or chromosomed
Somatic cells
All body cells except the reproductive cells
(46 chromosomes, 23 from each parent)
Reproductive cells
Gametes-sperms and eggs -have one set or half as many chromosomes as somatic cells
23 chromosomes
Sister chromatids
Each duplicated chromosome has 2
Joined copies of the original chromosome
Centromere
A region of the chromosomal DNA whee the chromatid is attached most closely to its sister chromatids
Cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm
What happens in fertilization?
Fixed two gametes together and returns the chromosome number to 46
G1
Growth period
G2
Prepares for cell division
S phase
synthesis (chromosomes duplicate
Mitotic spindle
Forms during prophase
In telophase of mitosis, the mitotic spindle breaks down and the chromatin uncoils. This is essentially the opposite of what happens in.....
Prophase
What phase of mitosis is essentially the opposite of prometaphase in terms of the nuclear envelope
Telophase
Assume that you are dealing with a species in which the number of chromosomes in each somatic cell is 14. How many sister chromatids are present in the early telophase of mitosis?
0!!!
In a human skin cell that is going through the cell cycle, when do the centrosomes separate?
Prophase
Following cytokinesis in an animal cell, how many centrioles does each new daughter cell posess
Two
The phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes move toward separate piles of the cell is..
Anaphase
One event occurring in prophase is
The beginning of the formation of the spindle apparatus
What happens in anaphase
Cohesions connecting sister chromatids are cleaved, liberating the chromatids (now called chromosomes) which begin moving toward opposite ends of the poles of the cell
During which stage of the cell cycle do sister chromatids separate
Anaphase
At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes lined up in one plane in preparation for their separation to opposite poles of the cell
Metaphase
You would know that a dividing cell was a plant cell rather than an animal cell if you saw that
It had formed a cell plate
During binary fission in a bacterium
The origins of replication move apart
What is involved in the binary fission of most bacteria
Distribution of a copy of the single parental chromosome to each daughter cell
When a cell in S phase is fused with a cell in G1
In DNA synthesis begins immediately in the original G1 nucleus
Tissue culture experiments with PDGF demonstrate that without this substance
Fibroblasts fail to divide
You would be unlikely to see which of the following human cells diving
Nerve cell
What hypothesis is best supported by observing cancer cells in a culture
The cancer cells do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition
G1 checkpoint
The go ahead signal, the most important checkpoint. If checkpoint doesn't happen, cell can go into a non-dividing state G0
M checkpoint
If all chromosomes are not there, the cycle is stopped.