APUSH Unit 4 Vocab
Terms in this set (70)
first chief justice; est. power of supreme court and federal power. created a stable environment for business. similar ideas to the Hamiltonians
Fletcher vs Peck (1810)
After a case involving Georgia and corrupt land claims, Marshall set the precedent that courts had the power to declare state laws unconstitutional. FIRST COURT CASE TO RULE STATE LAW UNCONSTITUTIONAL. ALSO PROTECTED PROPERTY RIGHTS.
McCulloch vs Maryland (1819)
The state of Maryland taxed banknotes produced by the Bank of the United States, claiming that the Bank was unconstitutional. Using IMPLIED POWERS, Marshall countered that the Bank was constitutional and ruled that Maryland was forbidden from taxing the Bank.
Darmouth College vs Woodward (1819)
Darmouth was a private college and NH wanted it to be state university, case was brought to supreme court, and Marshall said since the the school's charter said it was private they could not be changed. Also applied to other businesses and the validity of contracts and charters are established.
strengthened the contract clause and limited the power of the states to interfere with private charters, including those of business corporations. This freedom allowed the enormous growth of coroporations and the US ecnomy during the 19th and 20th centuries. Recognized a corporation as ppl with right. Ensured that other private colleges would be free from state interference, influencing the growth of public colleges ,
Cohens vs Virginia (1821)
Cohens found guilty of selling illegal lottery tickets and convicted, but taken to supreme court, and Marshall asserted right of Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme court decisions. FEDERAL POWER
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the CONSTITUTION gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights. SHOWED FEDERAL POWERS
John Quincy Adams
In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work. Not popular or well liked at all, and not that skilled either
The Great Triumvirate is a term that refers to the three statesmen who dominated the United States Senate in the 1830s and '40s: Henry Clay of Kentucky, Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. All three were extremely active in politics, had been appointed United States Secretary of State, and had served in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.Each was a distinguished orator and debater.
John C. Calhoun
wrote the South Carolina Exposition, which said that the Tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and they would cede from the Union if not fixed.
the great compromiser; main figurehead of the Whig/National Republic party. Secretary of State during the Corrupt Bargain under John Quincy Adams; ran for prez 5 times but failed. introduced the Tariff of 1833 to calm down the SC. Passed for the renewal of Bank charter, thinking that either way if Jackson had vetoed/signed it, it would alienate some demographic and reduce his popularity. But he didn't know that now the most pop. is the common man and not aristocrats.
whig, secretary of state, senator, the Massachusetts orator and politician, disliked slavery intentsely. wanted to keep the country united.
gained after the War of 1812
Tariff of 1816
first tariff instituted primarily for protection rather than revenue
raise tariffs so that you spur domestic industries
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
second Bank of the United States
This institution was chartered in 1816 under President Madison and became a depository for federal funds and a creditor for (loaning money to) state banks. It became unpopular after being blamed for the panic of 1819, and suspicion of corruption and mismanagement haunted it until its charter expired in 1836. Jackson fought against this institution throughout his presidency, proclaiming it to be an unconstitutional extension of the federal government and a tool that rich capitalists used to corrupt American society.
It had 3 main parts: A strong banking system, to provide easy and abundant credit. A protective tariff, behind which eastern manufacturing would flourish. A network of roads and canals.
Bonus Bill of 1817
Securing funding for roads and canals was hard. This bill was passed by Congress to give states $1.5 million for internal improvements, but it was immediately vetoed by Pres. Madison. In his opinion, he believed states should pay for their own improvements.
Era of Good Feelings
Federalists died, so Monroe and the Democratic Republicans only ones left; he was competent and accepted.
Panic of 1819
first national financial panic since Washington; mostly due to overspeculation in frontier lands bc of speculative "wildcat" banks (which were forced to close); many ppl sent to debtors prisons
Florida Purchase Treaty
1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas. gave american southwest to spain
Land Act of 1820
authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 per acre in cash, it also brought about cheap transportation and cheap money
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
Defined Russian claims to the Oregon territory, fixing the southernmost border of present-day Alaska.
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
"corrupt bargain" (1824)
Alleged behind-the-scenes deal made between Adams and Clay, in which Clay agreed to swing the election for Adams in exchange for the office of Secretary of State.
Democrat; was lauded as the "hero of the common man" but at the same time was very controversial. Opposed to all government meddling in social and economic life
Revolution of 1828
Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man"
rise of common man
During the Era of Good Feelings and the Age of Jackson, opportunities for political power of the common man greatly increased. Politicians began actively campaigning for votes, property requirements were eliminated in most states, and nominating conventions were opened to the public.
spoils system/rotation in office
Practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson's system of periodically replacing officeholders. Allowed ordinary citizens to play a more prominent role in government.
the party opposed the MAsonic Order, which was perceived by some as ppl of privilege and monopoly. Although Jackson was against monopolies, he was a Mason himself; therefore the Anti-Masons were an anit-Jackson party. Supported by evangelical Protestant groups
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Tariff of Abominations 1828
Tariff passed to help Northern businesses but was hated by southerners such as Calhoun. Led to the Nullification Crisis
South Carolina Exposition 1828
written by John C. Calhoun denouncing the 1828 Tariff as unconstitutional and that the states should declare it null and void
the doctrine that a state has the right to refuse to obey or enforce a federal law if the state believes that the law is unconstitutional and violates the state's rights or sovereignty
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Tariff of 1832
a tariff imposed by Jackson which was unpopular in the South; South Carolina nullified it, but Jackson pushed through the Force Act, which enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force; Henry Clay reworked the tariff so that South Carolina would accept it, but after accepting it, South Carolina also nullified the Force Act
Tariff of 1833
compromise tariff by Henry Clay; pacified the South Carolinians from seceding
Specie Circular 1836
a federal government action to dampen inflation brought on by land speculation following the closure of the Second National Bank; Jackson issued an order requiring payment for public lands only in gold or silver. This action contracted credit, caused overextended banks to fail, and precipitated the Panic of 1837.
Bank of the United States
national bank that Jackson thought was very monopolistic; got rid of it. It minted gold and silver coins, and was a private institution.
president of the Bank of US, held immense, possibly unconstitutional power of economy
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
Trail of Tears
the forced removal of 5 indian tribes and their transportation to Oklahoma
They lived in Florida as runaways from other tribes. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west.
seminole who was an important leader in Second Seminole War
a leader of Fox and Sauk Indians, decided to fight rather than leaving Illinios
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas
commanded the garrison at the Alamo; important in rallying the men to continue fighting
Mexican dictator who was in charge when war broke out between the Mexicans and Americans. He lost Texas to rebels, and was the leader of the armed forces during the war.
Martin Van Buren
Democrat; He passed the DIVORCE BILL which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and denied the banking system.
known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States.
won bc he appealed to common man with log cabin and hard cider campaigns; died 4 weeks in office
put on the ballot to attract influencial south gentry. very "democratic" Whig; originally vp under Harrison, but when he died he became prez. Didn't support centralized bank and vetoed bills for Fiscal Bank and Fiscal Corporation (which would est. a new Bank of US). also pro-expansionist.
Panic of 1837
largely caused by the 1836 Specie Circular and land speculations. Effects: many banks collapsed, commodity prices drop, sales of public fell, and jobs lost
by Van Buren, separated government and banking; Whigs didn't like it bc it gave them no hope of reviving the national bank.
President Van Buren's plan to keep government funds in its own vualts and do business entirely in hard money rather than keep them in depostits within shaky banks.
Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook Rive in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn - Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.
1842 - Established Maine's northern border. US got more land, but GB got the Halifax-Quebec line they wanted
sent to Mexico CIty by Polk to buy California for $25 mil, but got rejected
hero of Buena Vista, general of the Mexican-American war who had many victories and eventually became the future president
James K Polk
Democrat; pro-expansionist. Had a 4 part plan. (1) a lower tariff (2) restoration of the independent treasury (3/4) get Oregon and California
Mexican War causes and results
causes: TX annexation and border disputes with the rejection of Slidell and unpaid claims
John C. Fremont
commissioned by the Senate (especially Benton) to document and survey the west. His descriptions were to make the West look as nice as possible. His famous stories (e.g. Pathfinder) glorified the West and all the abundance of land and possible wealth
Congressman Abraham Lincoln supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory.
Bear Flag revolt
(1846) a revolt that took place during the Mexican American War when 500 Americans (Anglos) in Mexican California took the city of Sonoma, CA in the spirit of Manifest Destiny and declared California to be an independent nation
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
gave TX to america and the Mexican Cession, including California all for just $15M!!! basically lead to civil war bc of the issues over slavery
sucked around 16k votes from NY, making Clay fall 5k short of votes and ultimately losing the election
proposed that the territory from MExico should remain slave-free. Never passed Senate bc the SOuthern members didn't want to be robbed of possilbe slave states to arise in the future from the land gain in the Treaty of Guadalupe
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