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upper, lower

the respiratory system includes the ___________ and _________ respiratory system

nose, pharynx, associated structures

what is included in the upper respiratory system

larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

what is included in the lower respiratory system

conducting zone

this conducts air to lungs

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles

what structures are part of the conducting zone (conducts air to lungs)

respiratory zone

this is the main site of gas exchange

respiratory bronchioles, alveolarducts, alveolarsacs, alveoli

what are the structures of the respiratory zone (main site of gas exchange

external nose

this is the part of nasal system that is visible externally

internal nose

this is the large cavity beyond the nasal vestibule


what is another word for internal nares

internal nose

ducts (located superior) from the paranasal sinuses and nasolacrimal ducts open into the

nasal septum

the nasal cavity is divided by the


nasal conchae subdivide the nasal cavity into nasal


nasal conchae subdivide the nasal cavity into nasal meatuses to increase surface area in order to prevent _________________

olfactory receptors

_________ ______________ are in olfactory epithelium

internal nares, cricoid cartilage, larynx

the pharynx starts at the _________ ____________ and extends to the ________ ____________ of the ___________


constraction of skeletal muscles assist in ______________

passageway, resonating chamber, houses tonsils

what are the three main functions of the pharynx

air, food

the pharynx is a passageway for what

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

what are the three anatomical regions of the pharynx


this is a short passageway connecting the laryngopharynx with the trachea - just below the hyoid


the larynx is composed of _______________


how many pieces of cartilage is the larynx composed of

thyroid cartilage (adams apple)

the larynx is composed of 9 pieces of cartilage - what is one major piece


the cricoid cartilage is the hallmark for a (this is the a general area)


the epiglottis closes off the _____________ during swallowing


this is a pair of folds of mucous membranes, vocal folds (true vocal cords), and the space between them called the rima glottidis


this is in the upper respiratory tract to move mucous and trapped particles down toward the pharynx

lower respiratory

cilia in the _________ ____________ tract move mucous and trapped particles up toward the pharynx

ventricular folds, vocal folds

what are the structures of voice production

ventricular folds

these are superior, and part of voice production - they are used in holding your breath against pressure in thoracic cavity

vocal folds

these are inferior, and part of voice production - they vibrate, move apart or together, elongate or shorten, tighter or looser to produce sound with air

elastic ligaments

muscle contraction pulls __________ ____________ which stretch the vocal folds out into airway to produce sound


this makes the folds thicker and longer for slower vibration and lower pitch - gives male deeper voice

mucous membranes

___________ _________ of larynx forms the ventricular folds and vocal folds


this extends from the larynx to superior border of T5

primary bronchi

the trachea extends from the larynx to the superior border of T5 and divides into the right and left ________ ________________

mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage, adventitia

what are the 4 layers of the trachea

16, 20

the trachea is made up of ___ to ___ C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage

hyaline cartilage

the trachea is made up of 16 to 20 C shaped rings of _________ __________ - the open part faces the esophagus


this is an internal ridge - it is the most sensitive area for triggering the cough reflex

upper respiratory

everything located above the larynx is considered the

lower respiratory

everything located from the larynx down is considered the

superior, middle, inferior

what are the three conchae folds

below (inferior)

where is the nasal meatus located - in referance to the conchae

pharangeal, palatine (can see), lingual

what are the three tonsils


the nasopharynx is superior and located behind the


the oropharyns is in the middle and the laryngopharynx is __________ to it


the cricoid cartilage is not the same size all the way around - it is larger on the ___________ side

crico thyroid ligament

a tracheotomy is done here to avoid most ofther structures - this is the specific area - a hole is put here so you can breath


the right and left primary bronchus go to the right and left __________

bronchial tree

the primary bonchus divide to form the

secondary lobar bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchiles, terminal bronchioles

the primary bronchus divide to for the bronchial tree which becomes what 4 things

plates, disappear, smooth muscle

there are structural changes to the bronchi as it branches - the mucous membranes change, incomplete rings become _________ and then ___________, as cartilage decreases the _____________ ____________ increases


this part of the ANS is for relaxation/dilation


this part of the ANS is for contraction/constriction


these are seperated from each other by the heart and other structures in the mediastinum

pleural membrane

each lung is enclosed by a double layered _________ ____________

parietal, visceral

each lung is enclosed by a double layered pleural membrane - it includes the ____________ and _____________

pleural cavity

this is located between the two layers of the pleural membrane of the lungs

reduce friction, produce surface tension

the function of the pleural fluid located in the pleural cavity is to

pleural fluid

this is within the pleural cavity and it's function is to reduce friction and produce surface tension (stick together)

cardiac notch

this is part of the left lung and makes it 10% smaller than the right


each lung is divided into ___________ by 1 or 2 fissures

tertiary bronchi (segmental)

each lobe of the lung receives it's own secondary (lobar) bronchus that will branche into

lymphatic vessel, arteriole, venule, terminal bronchiole

lobules of the lung are wrapped in elastic connective tissue and contain a _____________ __________, ______, __________, and a branch from the __________ ______________

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts

terminal bronchioles of the lung branch into ______________ ______________ which divide into ____________ _____________


there are about _______ orders of branching in the lungs


this is a cup shaped outpouching - like a grape - 2 or more of these makes the alvoli sac

alveolar sac

this is two or more alveoli (cup shaped outpouching - bunch of grapes) sharing a common opening

alveolar epithelial cells

there are two types of __________ ______________ _____________ - type i and type ii

type i alveolar cells

these form continuous lining of alveolar wall, more numerous than the other type, this is the main site of gas exchange - single membrane for easy diffustion

type ii alveolar cells

these are found between other cells - they are rounded or cuboidal free surfaces containing microvilli, they secrete alveolar fluid (part surfactant) - line inside of - not part of the wall


this is in the alveolar fluid, it lowers the surface tension fo alveolar fluid which reduces the tendency of alveoli to collapse - the lung to collapse

alveolar wall, epithelial basement membrane, capillary basement membrane, capillary endothelium

the respiratory membrane is very thin - and made up of

.5 um

the respiratory membrane is only ____ thick - to allow rapid diffusion of gases

pulmonary artery, bronchial arteries

the lungs receive blood from the (2)

pulmonary artery

deoxygenated blood of the lungs comes from the

bronchial arteries

oxygenated blood to perfuse (flood) muscular walls of bronchi and bronchiles via the


the trachea to the bronchioles changes in structure - it goes from having cartilage to having _______


this pleural membrane covers/attaches to the rib


this pleural membrane cover the middle area - trachea, esophagus, bronchia


this pleural membrane covers the diaphragm


this pleural membrane is around the apex of the lungs just above the clavicle


this is gas exchange

pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration

these are the three steps of respiration (gas exchange)

pulmonary ventilation (breathing)

this is inhalation and exhalation - the exchange of air between atmosphere and alveoli

external (pulmonary) respiration

this is the movement of oxygen from the alveoli into pulmonary capillaries and carbon dioxide from pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli

internal (tissue) respiration

this is the movement of oxygen from capillaries into body cells and carbon dioxide from body cells into capillaries - supplies cellular respiration (makes atp)


internal (tissue) respiration is the exchange of gases between systemic capillaries and tissue cells - supplies cellular respiration and makes ______


pressure inside the alveoli must become ___________ than atmospheric pressure for air to flow into the lungs

boyles law

pressure inside the alveoli must become lower than atmospheric pressure for air to flow into the lungs - this is achieved by increasing the size of lungs - increase volume, decrease pressure this is know as

boyles law

the pressure of a gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container


lungs must expand, increasing lung volume, decreasing pressure below atmospheric pressue for

diaphragm, external intercostals

inhalation is active - it is the contraction of the ____________ and _______ ____________


this is the most important muscle for inhalation - it flattens, lowering the dome when contracted - responsible for 75% of air entering the lungs during normal quiet breathing

external intercoastals

these muscles are responsible for 25% of air entering lungs during normal quiet breathing - contraction and elevation of ribs

sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, pectoralis minor

these muscles assist with deep, forceful inhalation

subatmospheric, surface tension

when the thorax expands, parietal and visceral pleura adhere tightly due to _____________ pressure and ___________ ____________ - pulled along with expanding thorax


as lung volume increases, alveolar (intrapulmonic) pressure _______

exhalation (expiration)

this happens when pressure in the lungs is greater than atmospheric pressure


exhalation is normally _________ - muscles relax instead of contractinvolves relaxation of the diaphragm and elastic recoil of chest wall and lungs from elastic fibers and surface tension of alveolar fluid

elastic recoil, alveolar fluid

exhalation is normally passive - muscles relax - involves relaxation of the diaphragm and ________ _______________ of chest wall and lungs from elastic fibers and surface tension of _______ ______________

exhalation (expiration)

during this the diaphragm relaxes and becomes dome shaped - external intercostals relax and ribs drop down

forceful breathing

exhalation is only active during ___________ ___________

suface tension, lung compliance, airway resistance

air pressure differences drive airflow - what are the 3 other factors that affect rate of airflow (ease of pulmonary ventilation)

surface tension of alveolar fluid

this causes alveoli to assume smallest possible diameter - accounts for 2/3 of lung elastic recoil - it prevents collapse of alveoli exhalation

lung compliance

this is related to elasticity and surface tension - high means the lungs and chest wall expand easily

airway resistance

this is regulated by the diameter of the bronchioles and smooth muscle tone - a larger diameter airway has less restriction

air pressure

______ __________ differences drive airflow

minute ventilation (mv)

the total volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute


a normal healthy adult averages ___ breaths per minute

500 ml

normal healthy adult averages 12 breaths per minute - moving about ______ of air in and out of lungs (tidal volume)

breaths/min x breath = liters/min

what is the formula for figuring MV (minute ventilation)

70, 30

only about ____% of tidal volume reaches respiractory zone - the other _____% remains in conducting zone

anatomic dead space

this is an area of conducting airways with air that does not undergo respiratory gas exchange -can not blow out

alveolar ventilation rate

this is the volume of air per minute that actually reaches the respiratory zone

inspiratory reserve volume

this is the maximum amount of air you can take in - a very deep breath

expiratory reserve volume

this the air left after inhaling normally and exhaling forcefully

oblique fissure

this separates the superior and inferior lobes of the left lung

horizontal fissure

this separates the superior and middle lobes of the right lung

oblique fissure

this separates the middle and inferior lobes of the right lung


the is the peak that hangs over just below the cardiac notch of the left lung


this is the area where veins and arteries are in the lungs

left superior, right anterior

artery locations in relation to the primary bronchus - lisa simpson rides again - veins are inferior in both left and right

pulmonary circulation

this is the pulmonary system for the lung - for the organ it's self

pulmonary circulation

the pulmonary artery receives deoxygenated blood - bronchial artery carries oxygenated blood to bronchioles - this follows the primary arteries just like the heart

760 mmHg

the normal atmospheric pressure is ___________ - just a 2mm decrease in alveolar pressure will allow you to pull in air

autonomic nervous system

what does ans stand for

vital capacity

inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume =

total lung capacity

vital capacity + residual volume =

residual volume

this is the amount of air that is always in lungs - about 1 liter (avg)

total pressure

this is the sum of specific gases

atmospheric pressure (760mmHg)

Pn2 + Po2 + Ph2o + Pco2 + Pother gases =


blood has a lower pressure than the atmospheric pressure - this allows diffusion - the greater the difference the _________ the rate of diffusion


there are some illnesses that diffusion of O2 to blood doesn't happen as well - this is due to the amount of ______ in the blood


each gas within a mixture of gases exerts it's own ___________ - as if no other gases were present


pressure of a specific gas is ____________ __________ - noted ____

total pressure

each gas in a mixture of gases exerts it's own pressure as if no other gases were present - pressure of a specific gas is partial pressure (Px) - ____________ ____________ is the sum of all the partial pressures

greater, less

each gas diffuses across a permeable membrane from the area where it's partial pressure is ____________ to the area where it's partial pressure is ____________

henrys law

the quantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressures of the gas and its solubility


in Henry's Law - higher partial pressure of a gas over a liquid and higher solubility - more of the gas will ______ in solution

co2, o2

much more ____ is dissolved in blood than ______ - because it is 24 times more soluble


even though the air we breath is mostly ___ , very little dissolves in blood due to low solubility


even though the air we breath is mostly N2, very little dissolves in blood due to low solubility - in divers there's greater pressure - more N2 dissolves in blood - if come up too fast you get decompression sickness or ________


diffusion of oxygen continues until Po2 of pulmonary capillary blood matches Po2 of alvolar air - oxygen wants to go from high to low pressure - this will happen until oxygen levels reach ___________

alveolar, pulmonary capillaries

oxygen diffuses from _________ air into blood of __________ __________

pulmonary veins

a small amount of mixing with blood from the conducting portion of the respiratory system drops Po2 of blood in __________ _______ to 100mmHg in external respiration

pulmonary capillaries, alveolar air

carbon dioxide diffuses from deoxygenated blood in ____________ ________________ into the ___________ _______ - this continues until Pco2 in blood reaches 40mmHg - this is external respiration

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