Psych exam 4
Terms in this set (171)
Sterilization laws beginning in the early 1900s remained on the books in the United States until the
Stephanie's friends describe her as someone who has the uncanny ability to say the right thing at the right time whenever someone is in need. According to Gardner, Stephanie's skills may reflect a type of ________ intelligence.
Concerning the historical misuses of IQ testing, which is true?
Immigrants scoring low on IQ tests usually did so because of a lack of familiarity with the English language.
Justin was an average student in school. He ultimately earned his college degree, barely maintaining a "C" average. He has since been named manager of a local retail store and is responsible for the store's unprecedented success. According to Sternberg, at what type of intelligence does Justin excel?
Taylor is the only girl on her baseball team. Today she will be playing in the championship game and is worried that she will "choke" (not be able to play as well as she usually does) because she was told that girls always "choke" in the big games. What concept does this illustrate?
According to Sternberg, ________ intelligence is akin to the ability to reason logically.
The correlations between different assessed aspects of intelligence as measured by the Binet-Simon intelligence test was the basis of Spearman's concept of one general intelligence. These correlations have been supported by the use of modern intelligence tests. The repeated findings of similar outcomes is the key to which critical thinking concept?
Which of the following is likely to produce increased correlations between SAT scores and college GPA?
admitting more low-SAT-scoring students to college
The type of intelligence that allows you to learn to play your first few notes on a saxophone is called
According to Robert Sternberg, _______________ is best described as "street smarts," or the ability to use information to get along in life.
Concerning intelligence and memory, which statement is true?
Intelligence test scores tend to be positively correlated with scores on short-term memory tests.
According to Spearman, it is one's ________ intelligence that produces the positive correlations found between vocabulary, spatial ability, and verbal reasoning tests.
When a test has a high capacity to forecast future behaviors or outcomes, it might be described as having high ________ validity.
Professor Bach hands each of his students an eraser. He then asks them to list as many possible uses for the eraser as they can think of. Which aspect of thought is Professor Bach exploring?
Which controversial book caused a rather significant uproar when its authors, Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, suggested that some of the IQ gap between the races is genetic in origin?
the bell curve
Which of these is an element of the formal definition of mental retardation?
Inadequate adaptive functioning in a variety of areas
Those who take classes designed to improve their scores on standardized tests, such as the SAT, seem to enjoy improved scores when they take the test after the course. It would be easy to assume that the course was responsible for the improvement, but this would be ignoring which principle of critical thinking?
correlation vs. causation
According to Robert Sternberg, ____________ is the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems
(g) general intelligence
cause of positive correlations among ability tests (more overall powerful with general knowledge)
(S) specific intelligence
domain specific ability different subjects you can be good at
learn new ways of solving solving new problems
(decrease with age, related to g, i.e, cell phones)
from knowledge and experience (acquired, accumulates with)
general area of skills people have (special abilities) what your good at and the way your brain works
(sternberg's 3 different ways of thinking)
1. analytical intelligence - able to analyze more broad (book smarts)
2. practical intelligence-solve real world problems (street smarts)
3. creative intelligence- come up with novel & effective answers to questions (creativity)
intelligence & reaction times
higher intelligence react more quickly (efficiency or speed of info processing)
intelligence & memory
closely related ,higher memory seem to process things more quickly, brain quizzes- increases memory and IQ raises
performance on test compared to the scores of others in different age groups. (9 year old performed as well as average 11 year old, mental age is 11)
bell curve- determined by how much or less you score of your peers. helps compare scores across age groups
getting people with smart genes to reproduce and preventing the bad genes to reproduce to improve population
culture fair IQ
creates an unbiased test so language and culture isn't a factor to your score
mental retardation/intellectual disability
1. onset prior to adulthood
2. IQ below or at zero
3. inadequate adaptive functioning as assessed by difficulties w/ dresses and feeding oneself and communicating with others
people that score in the top 2% of IQ tests
poverty & IQ
lower when raised in poverty- food, lower schooling, less support
population was raising an average of 3 points a decade
-increased test sophistication-more experienced with tests
-complexity of the world increased- more technology and we have to proccess things faster in order to keep up (technology)
-changes at home and school- smaller families, more extra help in schools
IQ is more variant
more central higher concentration at their median
special mental abilities
female- spelling writing and pronouncing words (verbal)
extent to which trait a trait like IQ is heritable within groups
between group heritability
differences in a trait between groups is genetically influenced (races are quite small)
fear that we may confirm negative group stereotype (knowing you are supposed to do well because you are asian)
predictive for on race better than the other
capacity to generate many different solutions to a problem (outside the box)
capacity to find the single best solution to thinking (toss out the bad ones )
ability to understand our emotions and those of others and to apply this info in everyday lives
application of knowledge / intelligence towards a common good (balance with care for self others and broader society)
Media portrayals of women (movies, televisions shows, and magazines) typically show women who are 15 percent below the average woman's weight. Women who view these images tend to have higher levels of body dissatisfaction. It would be easy to conclude that the portrayals are responsible for this lower body satisfaction, but this would be making which error related to the principles of critical thinking?
Correlation vs. causation
Lonnie just met Lennie at a rally for their favorite political candidate. Which principle would best explain why they find themselves attracted to one another?
Schachter and Singer's two-factor theory of emotion suggests that we distinguish between the experience of different emotions based on
our interpretation of the situation.
____________ is a value that establishes a range of body fat and muscle mass we tend to maintain.
Johnny just passed a note to Kelsey in math class. The note says that his friend Jake has a crush on her. What idea suggests that Kelsey will now find Jake more attractive?
The __________ theory of emotion states that the experience of emotion occurs simultaneously with biological changes.
The term used to indicate people's wish or craving for sexual activity is ________.
Ekman conducted a number of studies of facial expressions and found that
seven primary emotions are almost universal.
Charlotte is preparing dinner for her family. She just finished running nearly 10 miles and plans on another run after dinner. As she dishes out meatloaf and potatoes to her mother, father, and brother, she reserves a small bowl of broccoli for herself. What eating disorder may Charlotte be suffering from?
The fact that different expressions of emotions tend to appear across cultures might lead one to believe that these expressions are evolutionarily based, and not affected by culture. At the same time, another explanation of this similarity is that because many people have been exposed to Western culture, they have taken on Western facial expressions of emotions. This alternate explanation for the apparent universality of emotional expression demonstrates which principle of critical thinking?
Ruling out rival hypotheses
discrete emotions theory
humans experience only a small number of distinct emotions that combine in complex ways (rooted in our biology) essentially everyone has same faces for these emotions babies blind people ect
cross culturally universal (happy, sad, mad, suprised, confused, content, disgust)
other emotions besides primary (secondary color)
social guidelines for when and how emotions can be displayed ie boys dont cry
cognitive theories of emotion
product of thinking
James Lange theory of emotion
body reaction comes first, body reaction drives emotional reaction
somatic marker theory
"gut reaction" help us determine how to act
event leads to simultaneously to an emotion and bodily reaction (same time)
emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with attribution of that arousal. i.e. get aroused by event then search for reason why you are aroused, then have emotion
broaden & build theory
happiness predisposes us to think more openly allowing us to see big picture we might have otherwise over looked
tendency for older to remember more positive than negative with age
predicting yourself and others happiness
we believe good and bad moods will last longer than they do
tendency of moods to adapt to external circumstances
peoples defined self worth
tendencies to perceive ourselves more favorably than others do (see themselves as more intelligent, pretty, likeable)
anticipating failure and compensating for this exception by mentally over-preparing for negative outcomes
psychological drive that propels us in a direction
drive reduction theory
certain drives like hunger thirst & sexual frustration motivate us to minimize negative feelings and seek pleasure
reaching equilibrium within your body
inverted U-shape relation between arousal on the one hand and mood and performance on the other (optimal point of arousal- stay in the middle not too high not to low)
motivated by positive goals
self motivated (wanting to learn)
motivated by outside goals (good grade)
biological neccessity (food, water, shelter)
psychological need (belongingness, love, self-esteem)
mallow's hierarchy of needs
satisfy our primary needs psychological needs and reads for safety and security before complex secondary needs
blood glucose levels drop, hunger creates drive to restore proper level
hormone that signals hypothalamus and brain stem to reduce appetite and increase the amount of energy used
value that establishes a range of body fat and muscle mass we tend to maintain (defends against weightloss) (gas gage)
obese people are motivated to eat from external views
a wish or craving for sexual activity and pleasure
more desire frequently , more arousals
sexual orientation therapy
therapy that tries to manipulate your sexual orientation
genetics (twin study)
twins don't inherent certain genes to be gay, environment is a huge part of it.
exotic become erotic
children feel different than others of their sex and see them as exotic causing an attraction later in life
females that were exposed to testosterone are manly boys not exposed to enough are femminine
3 principals of attraction
proximity- physical nearness
similarity- having things in common
reciprocity- rule of give and take in a relationship (equity)
males peruse women to maximize potential reproduction, females are more picky because there is only one egg
social role models
males are more likely to be hunter gatherers than and woman childcare because they carry them
love marked by powerful, overwhelming, longing for ones partner
sense of deep friendship and fondness of one's partner
a type of response (tension disscomfort)
a thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue.
physical and physchologoical reaction to stressful circumstances
stress hormone that activates the body and prepares us to respond for stressful situations
how people deal and react to stress with enviroment
initial decision whether an event is harmful
perceptions regarding our ability to cope with an event that follows primary appraisal
positive outlook on situations accompanied by behaviors that reduce painful emotion
Seyle's general adaption syndrome
stress-response pattern that consists of three stages (alarm, resistance,exhaustion)
excitation of the nervous system, adrenaline, and signs of anxiety
-activation of sympathetic nervous system
-adaptive from males
deciding whether people are going to fight back and defend or flee under stress (Male)
adapts to stressor and finds coping method
break down causing damage to organ system, depression, anxiety, to a break down of immune system
tend and befriend
reaction to help someone or to find someone else to do it (woman)
bodies system against illness
-more likely to get colds while really stressed (no sleep, eat bad, dont take care of yourself)
coronary heart disease
damage to the heart from complete or partial blockage of the arteries that provide oxygen to the heart -
(stress casues it by high blood pressure, enlargement of heart stress hormones can cause irregular heart beat or death)
emotional relationship with people that can provide support and comfort and even financial
disclosing painful emotions and experiences
-negative and positive it depends
view change as a challenge instead of threat.
-commitment to life and work
-courage to confront stressful situations
positive outlook and dont dwell on things out of their control
search for sacred which may or may not be god
recycling of negative events in our minds can make us depressed
typical ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving (consistent across time)
heritablity of personality
resevoir for our most primitive impulses , sex an aggression (driving force of our behavior)
executive and princepal decision maker (boss- principal decision maker)
strive to get instant gratification
postpone gratification until good outlet
sense of morality
unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety (reacting to something quickly)
holding back and forgetting- provoking memories
diverting unnacceptable impulses toward unrelated objects
attributing our own unacceptable influences to others
retreating to an earlier stage of development
channeling unacceptable impulses in acceptable outlets
-iD's command for instant gratification
-how you are raised
-fixatio; unresolved conflicts withen a stage too much/ little attention
mouth pleasure (binky, eating milk, sucking on fingers)
learning to control bowel movements
pleasure from genitals
puberty with little additional development
re-emergence of sexual interest (intercourse)
personality springs from competition (inferiority complex)
-birth order & sibling rivalries
personality develops from social struggle
collective unconscious- common reservoir of experience that is from our universal experience
2)contingencies in the environment- reinforces and punishers
social learning theories
emphasize thinking as cause of personality
locus of control
extent to which people believe that reinforces and punishers lie inside or outside of their control- internal control:events are due largely to efforts and efforts External control: everything due to fate and chance
core motive in personality is self-actualization: drive to develop or innate potential to the fullest possible event
conditions of worth
expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behavior
describing and understanding personality
five personality traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measures
(extraversion-social and lively, nueoticism-tense and moody, agreeableness-easy to get along with, conscientiousness- careful and responsible, openess-curious and open to outlooks on the world)
focus on self and personal goals - relations with others
detect personality traits by measuring bumps on their head
personality test to assess symptoms of mental disorder -true or false questions
rorschach inkblot test
interpretations of unstructured inkblots to reveal inner feelings and personality
projective test requiring examinees to tell a story in response to ambiguous pictures.
draw a person text
low to non existant- size of eyes, genitalia, ect. is supposed to tell you your personality
PT barnum effect
tendency of people to accept descriptions that apply to almost everyone is applying specifically to them- horoscopes
belief that how you see the world is how it is
encountering info that is inconsistant with your thoughts
2-3 years additional
-advanced training in particular subjest
4-7 years addition
-provides quality contol and accountibility
-requires:eduaction suoervised experience and test
training beyond minimum requirements
ie board certified
-therapy, diagnosis assesment, not perscribing medicine
-addiction, children, geriatric (mental health, can write perscription, more expensive)
M in social work
-counseling, therapy, connect with clients
masters or docterate
-teach, research, service all depends at what level you are counseling
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