Chapter 2 P Vocabulary: Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth
The composition of igneous rocks lying between felsic and mafic.
A compositional group of igneous rock which indicates the rock contains substantial dark silicate minerals and calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar.
Bowen's reaction series
A concept proposed by N.L. Bowen that illustrates the relationship between magma and the minerals crystallizing from it during the formation of igneous rocks.
Chemical sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rock that is made up of material that was precipitated from water by either inorganic or organic means.
An igneous rock texture in which the crystals are roughly equal in size and large enough so that individual minerals can be identified with the unaided eye.
Changes in rocks that are created by the heat from a nearby magma body.
The growth and formation of crystalline solid from a gas or liquid.
Any economic mineral deposit in which the desired mineral occurs as scattered particles in the rock but in good amounts to make the deposit an ore.
A sedimentary rock produced from material deposited from solution by means of evaporation of the water.
Igneous activity that takes place outside the crust.
The group of igneous rocks that are composed of mainly feldspar and quartz.
A texture of metamorphic rocks that gives the rock a layered appearance.
The remains or traces of organisms that are preserved from the geologic past.
A term used to describe the specific texture of specific igneous rocks like obsidian, which contains no crystals.
A compositional group of rocks, igneous, that indicate a rocks composition to be composed of mainly light-colored silicates.
The hot, watery solution that escapes from a mass of magma during the later stages of crystallization. Hydrothermal solutions, solutions may alter the surrounding country of rock and are typically the source of significant ore deposits.
A rock formed by the crystallization of molten magma.
The process, usually cementation and/or compaction, of converting sediments to solid rock.
Igneous rocks with a low level of silica content and a high iron-magnesium content.
A body of molten rock found at depth, including any dissolved gases and crystals.
Rocks formed by the alteration of preexisting rock deep within Earth, though still in a solid state, because of heat, pressure, and/or chemically active fluids.
The changes in mineral composition and texture of a rock subjected to high temperature and pressure within Earth.
The texture of rocks that do not exhibit foliation, or layered appearance.
The texture of rocks consisting of large crystals embedded in a matrix of smaller crystals.
Metamorphism associated with large-scale mountain-building processes.
A model that illustrates the origin of the three basic rock types and the interrelatedness of Earth materials and processes.
Unconsolidated particles formed by weathering and erosion of rock, by chemical precipitation from solution in water, or from the secretions of organisms and transported by water, wind, or glaciers.
Rock created from the weathered products of preexisting rocks that have been transported, deposited, and lithified.
Parallel layers of sedimentary rock.
The shape, size, and distribution of the particles that collectively constitute a rock.
Igneous rock made of up iron and magnesium-rich minerals.