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AP US History - 1945 to 1952

Truman and the Cold War
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Servicemn's Readjustment Act (GI Bill)
bill that gave more benefits to Veterans, allowed many to attend college, passed 1944
Baby Boom
the sharp increase in the US birthrate following WWII, led to Suburban Growth
Suburban Growth
Resulted as a desperate need for housing arose following the war; Levittown= project of 17000 family homes on Long Island, NY.
Employment Act of 1946
Enacted by Truman, it committed the federal government to ensuring economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors to confer with the president and formulate policies for maintaining employment, production, and purchasing power
Council of Economic Advisers
A board of three professional economists was established in 1946 to advise the president on economic policy.
Committee on Civil Rights
Truman bypassed the southern Democrats in key seats in Congress and established this committee to challenge racial discrimination in 1946.
22 Amendment
presidents could only serve 2 terms, ratified in 1951
Taft-Hartley Act
passed 1947, tried to reduce the power of unions, Truman Vetoed
Progressive Party (1948)
Party for which Henry Wallace ran for President,
Henry Wallace
for VP FDR, ran in 1948 election as representative for Progressive party
States-Rights Party (Dixiecrats)
racist party devoted to state rights
J. Strom Thurmond
Ran for president in 1948 with the Racist, States-Rights Party
Thomas Dewey
Republican presidential nominee in 1944 who failed in his effort to deny FDR a fourth term
Fair Deal
President Truman's program of social reform, mostly didn't pass
World Bank
a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments
Communist Satellites
nations effectivly run by USSR , used as "buffer states"
Iron Curtain
term for the cold war barrier betwen the US and USSR
Winston Churchill
Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II
Containment Policy
US policy to stop expansion of Soviet Union and Communism
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Marshall Plan
Program of American economic assistance to rebuild Western Europe, and strength Democratic Gov't (prevent communism)
Berlin Airlift
effort by the US to provide supplies to the "stranded" East Berlin, 1948-1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
military alliance of 10 of democratic countries, 1949 (mostly W. Europe and Canda/USA)
National Security Act
1947; changed War Dept -> Dept of Defense; single budget for Dept of Defense; created NSA and CIA
US - Japanese Security Treaty
ended formal occupation of Japan, allowed for US to remain to defend againt communism
Douglas MacArthur
American general, who commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II.
Chiang Kai-Shek
Leader of the Chinese nationalist party, anti-communism, 1928-1948
Taiwan
anti-communist island that broke away from China in 1949
Mao Zedong
Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)
People's Republic of China
China's name after Mao Zedong took over
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Kim II Sung
communist leader of North Korea, 1948-1994
Syngman Rhee
first democratic leader of South Korea, 1948-1960
Korean War
war between Communist North Korea and Democratic South Korea, resulted in a "tie" (no loses or gains)
38th Parallel
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
Dennis v United States
Supreme Court upheld the Smith Act (1951)
Smith Act
1940 act, made it illegal to speak of or advocate overthrowing the U.S. government (used to prosecute communists)
Mccarran Internal Security Act
1950, communist organizations required to register, restricted thier travel and employment, vetoed by Truman
House Un-American Activities Committee
investigated suspected Communists in US, (HUAC)
Alger Hiss, Rosenberng Case
Examples of the US trying to catch communist spies, regardless of privacy issues
Joesph McCarthy
republican senator, accused many prominent figures of being communists "Mccarthyism"