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Microbiology Diseases (Bacterial)
Terms in this set (47)
Bacteria. U.S.. Zoonotic. Anaplasma phagocytophilum. A disease commonly found in cattle where it can cause wasting and diarrhea in adult cattle, but no symptoms in young cattle. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of a tick. Human symptoms include diarrhea, anorexia and weight loss. Diagnosis is by a blood smear. Treatable with antibiotics. David Lettermen had this disease, he thinks he caught it while camping in a treehouse with his son.
Bacteria. U.S. Zoonotic.Bacillus anthracis.There are three types. Cutaneous is contracted when spores enter the skin. Pulmonary by inhalation of spores. Gastointestinal by ingestion of spores. Pulmonary anthrax is the most serious. Starts out with flu-like symptoms for several days followed by respiratory collapse. If untreated the fatality rate is greater than 90%. Early diagnosis and treatment is esential. GI anthrax is also serious, but rare. Fatality rates even in treated individuals is near 50%. Cutaneous is the least severe and rarely results in death if treated early. Cutaneous is diagnosed by a large painless ulcer with a black necrotic center, called an eschar. Because of its high fatality rate anthrax spores are considered to be a good candidate for a biological warfare weapon. For many years several countries had research programs designed at weaponizing anthrax spores. The U.S. currently has millions of doses of ciprofloxacin stockpiled in case of an anthrax attack.
Bacteria. U.S. World.S. pyogenes - Strep throat, Scarlet fever, Rheumatic fever, Impetigo, Acute glomerulonephritis.Beta-hemolytic strep. One of the ten most common diseases in the U.S. It is also one of the most common communicable diseases. The disease starts in the throat and nasopharynx, usually. It has many virulence factors that include fimbriae for better adherence to skin, a capsule that protects it from phagocytosis, a C5a protease that inhibts the complement system, C-carbohydrates that protect aganist lysozyme. It also has streptolysins that cause tissue injury, erythrogenic toxin that causes fever and a red rash, and superantigens that cause the release of tissue necrotic factor. Like Staphylococcus it has enzymes that break down tissue, e.g. streptokinase that digest fibrin clots, hyaluronidase that breaks down connective tissue, and DNase that hydrolyzes DNA. Transmission is by contact, respiratory droplets, food and fomites. Bacteria enters usually via the pharynx. If untreated, the bacteria can enter the blood and cause scarlet fever, a acute febrile disease with a deep red rash. If still untreated the bacteria can lodge in the valves of the heart and cause rheumatic fever and scarring of the heart valves. It can also cause glomerulonephritis because of the antigen/antibody complexes being filtered.
Botulism Food Poisoning
Bacteria. U.S. Clostridium botulism. C. botulinum spores are found pretty much everywhere. Botulism is contracted when either the bacterium grows in a wound under anaerobic conditions, or we ingest food in which the bacterium has grown under anaerobic conditions, producing the very potent botulism toxin. The toxin inhibits the body's production of acetylcholine, which is necessary for transmission of nerve impulses from one cell to another. In the absence of acetylcholine the muslces become paralyzed. This typically starts with the muscles of the face. In severe cases it spreads to the muscles that control breathing and this leads to respiratory failure. However, the fatality rate has fallen from 50% to 7% currently beczause of better supportive respiratory care using mechanical ventilation. Symptoms of botulism poisoning usually occur 12-36 hours after ingesting contaminated food.
C-diff, CDAD, Clostridium difficile-associated disease
Bacteria. U.S. Clostridium difficile. Causes antibiotic-associated colitis. This is commonly found in hospitals where patients are being treated with antibiotics. The antibiotics knock out the normal flora of the intestinal tract, allowing C. difficile to overgrow. C. difficile produces entertoxins that damage the intestives, resulting in diarhhea. Treatment is with antibiotics and intravenous fluid for eletrolyte replacement.
Bacteria. U.S. Zoonotic. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter fetus.Commonly found in birds and mammals. Transmitted in foods and beverages. It is similar to cholera in that it produced a toxin that impairs the functioning of the intestines, resulting in a severe diarrhea. Like cholera, headache, fever, abdominal pain are also present. Treatment by rehydration, electrolyte restoration and antibiotic.
Bacteria. U.S. Chlamydia trachomatis. It has several forms. It can infect the eyes, casusing ocular trachoma. It can also infect a baby as it passes through the birth canal. The sexually transmitted form is quite common in the U.S> because many people are assymptomatic and act as reservoirs for the spread of the disease. It can cause groin lesions, urethritics, cervicitis, slapingitis, and infertility. Easily treatable with antibiotics if you know that you have it.
Bacteria. U.S. Corynebacterium diphteriae. Because it is acquired via respiratory droplets it is most often contracted in situations where there are crowded unsanitary conditions. There are two stages to the disease, the local infection in which the disease is concentrated in the upper respiratory tract and causes sore throat, nausea, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes. A pseudomembrane often forms. In the second stage a diptherotoxin is produced and it affects the heart and nerves, causing them to shut down. In untreated individuals, fatality rate is around 10%. We have a vaccine, DPT, and diptheria is very rare in the U.S. Since 2000, there have been two cases and the last one was in 2003. A man did die of diptheria in Haiti in 2010.
Bacteria. Escherichia coli and others. Most of these diseases are diarrhea caused because the bacteria produces an enterotoxin. However, some of them produce stronger toxins that can cause death. They are commonly associated with food poisoning. Some of the different types are 1) enterotoxigenic - causes severe diarrhea, 2) Enteroinvasive - causes inflammatory disease of the large intestine, 3) Enteropathogenic - linked to wasting form of infantile diarrhea, 4) Enterohemorrhagic - causes hemorrhagic syndrome and kidney damage. A major cause of traveler's diarrhea and urinary tract infections.
Bacteria. Zoonotic. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. This disease is frequently associated as an occupational disease of butchers. The bacterium is found in farm animals, largely the tonsils of pigs. It can cause a disease in pigs called "diamon skin disease". In humans, it causes red splotches on the skin. It is not life-threatening.
Bacteria.Clostridium perfringens. Typically is found in soft tissue and wound infections. It was especially prevalent in the world wars before the development of antibiotics. The spores are found pretty much everywhere in the environment. Virulence factors include alpha toxin that causes red blood cells to rupture, collagenase that breaks down connective tissue, hyaluronidase that breaks down connective tissue, and DNse that degrades DNA. While breaking down the tissue, gas is produced that forms blebs (bubbles) at the surface of the skin. The skin is also purple from the degraded red blood cells (see picture at right). Because antibiotics do not ordinarily penetrate into muscles sufficiently, the treatment is debridement and cleaning of the wound. Often, amputation is necessary.
Bacteria. U.S. Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One of the top 15 most common communicable disease in the U.S. Gonorrhe is a sexually transmitted disease. It has virulence factors, such as fimbriae that allows it to attach to skin surfaces and IgA protease which destroys your secretory antibody (IgA). Symptoms differ but the tell-tale symptom is usually burning during urination. In 10% of men and 50% of women there are no symptoms. That is why the disease is hard to eradicate because they are many people spreading it that don't know they have it (asymptomatic carrier). It is also difficult to treat because many strains have become resistant to penicillin and some of the other antibiotics. Newborns can aquire the disease as they go through the birth canal, resulting in eye inflammation and blindness. For this reason all babies are treated prophylactically when they are born.
Bacteria. Streptococcus or Staphylococcus. Skin disease that often starts when Staph or Strep are introduced into a cut or scrape. Forms crusty lesions. Diagnosed by looking at it. Not serious.
Bacteria. Acinetobacter baumanii. Similar to Pseudomonas in structure and the diseases it causes. It is becoming a problem for nosocomial infections. It can infect wounds, lungs, urinary tracts, burns, and blood. It is the cause of Iraquibacter, a disease afflicting many returning veterans.
Bacteria. U.S. Legionella pneumophila. This disease was first identified in a group of Legionnaires at a convention in Philadelphia. The bacteria are often found in water reservoirs in close association with amoebas. It is most prevalent in males over 50 years of age. Fever, cough, diarrhea, abdominal pain and pneumonia. Fatality rate in in the order of 10-30%.
Leprosy- Hansen's Disease
Bacteria.U.S. Mycobacterium leprae. A disease that starts on the skin and eventually works its way into the system and to the nerve cells. It is very slow growing and not very easily transmitted. It is not a problem in the U.S., but there are pockets in the world where it is common. The tuberculoid form results in lesions on the body and loss of pain reception. The lepromatous form the degrades tissue and results in disfigurement of the face and the extremities.
Bacteria. Zoonotic. Leptospira interrogans. It is the world's most common disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Commonly occurs by humans allowing water that has animal urine in it come into contact with breaks in the skin. Begins with flu-like symptoms in first phase. The patient gets better. Case fatality rate is 1-5%. A second phase may occur that this includes meningitis, liver damage, and renal failure. This is where the fatalities occurs. Anything that puts you in touch with animal urine may put you at risk. This includes gardening, hunting, surfing, gutting, swimming, butchering.
Bacteria. Zoonotic. Listeria monocytogenes. An interesting organism found in soil and water and animal intestines (that drink the water). It is usually associated with contaminated diary products, poulty and meat. It is fairly rare, but most often found in the elderly, newborns, and immunocomprised individuals. The bacteria can somewhat escape the immune system because it can replicate in macrophages. It also is able to grow and replicate in the refrigerator. So food processors must be extremely careful. It is usually self-limiting with symptoms of headache, fever and vomiting. But it does have a 20% fatality in the susceptible group.
Bacteria. U.S. Zoonotic. Borrelia burgdorferi. Transmitted by arthropod vector. A deer tick. Typical flu-like symptoms. In about half the cases you can see a bullseye rash where the original tick bite occurred. If untreated, the disease can progres to serious illness with damage to heart and cranial nerves.
Bacteria. U.S. & World. Neisseria meningitidis. This bacteria has virulence factors such as a capsule that helps protect it from phagocytic cells, fimbriae that help it to adhere to tissue, IgA protesase to destroy secretory antibodies, and endotoxin to cause a febrile response. There are many people that carry this disease, without having it. So the more people that you come in contact with, the more likely you are to encounter the disease. Babies and young adults are the most susceptible. Once infected, the bacteria may cross the blood-brain barrier and grow in the cerebrospinal fluid. The onset of the disease is very rapid with neurological symptoms (shooting stars, flashing lights, headache, back pain). The endotoxin can cause hemorrhaging and shock and the disease can be fatal if not treated by antibiotics. Diagnosis is usually by symptoms and examination of cerebrospinal fluid for bacterial cells.
Pasteurella Multocida- opportunistic
Bacteria. Zoonotic. Pasteurella multocida. This is the ;most common infection that occurs after a cat scratch or dog bite. It normally only causes swelling and local inflammation and possibly lymph node swelling. In rare cases the bacteria gets in the bllod and can cause an osteomyelitis, and endocarditis, or a meningitis.
Bacteria. Haemophilus aegyptius. Inflammation of the lining of the eye, the conjunctiva. Most pink eye is caused by virus and is untreatable. This form, however, can be treated with antibiotics.
Pneumonia- Streptococcus pneumonia
Bacteria. U.S. & World. Streptococcus pneumoniae. Two thirds of bacteriall-caused pneumonias are caused by this group. The bacteria are inhaled into the lungs where they set up infection. They produce capsules (a lot of slime) and there is a very strong immune response against the bacteria. The results in the lungs being filled up with bacterial slime and exudate from your immune response. Very young and elderly people have difficulty fighting the disease and in clearing their lungs. That is why most of the people that die from pneumonia (about 25,000 people per year in the U.S.) are from these age groups.
Pseudomonas- related Diseases
Bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas is found everywhere and can even be found in humans. It is resistant to detergents, disinfectants and many antibiotics. It is an opportunisitic pathogen and is fast becomine a major problem as a nosocomial infection. We hear about it the most in burn victims, but it can also cause neoplastic disease, cystic fibrosis, UTR, agscesses, otitis, corneal disease, endocarditis, meningitis, and bronchopneumonia.
Bacteria. U.S. Zoonotic. Chlamydia psittaci. Infection caught from birds. Chlamdia psittaci, causes fever and headache and may become severe. It is a rare disease and most often found in pet shop owners, zoo keepers (especially aviary), veterinary workers, and poultry farmers.
Bacteria. U.S. Zoonotic. Coxiella burnetti. This is an intracellular parasite. In initial stages it causes a flu-like disease. If left untreated in can progress to an acute respiratory disease and can be fatal. If is found in mnay types of animals and is often transmitted by inhalation of their bodily material (urine, feces, milk, etc). Because of this vet techs, stockyard workers, farmers, at at risk for this disease.
Bacteria. Streptococcus pyogenes. A disease that occurs after having strep throat. Rheumatic fever mainly affects children ages 5 -15, and occurs approximately 14-28 days after strep throat or scarlet fever. Symptoms include abdominal pain, fever, heart problems, chest pain, join pain, joint swelling, nosebleeds, skin nodules, and rash.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Bacteria.U.S. Zoonotic. Rickettsia rickettsii. This disease is transmitted by ticks and is the most common rickettsial disease in the U.S. Its symptoms include fever, chills, headache and a distinct spotted rash. If it is untreated it can moved to the CNS and case fatality rate at this point is 20%.
Bacteria. U.S. Zoonotic. Salmonella species, fever, cramps, diarrhea, vomiting. Gotten from unprepared foods or reptiles. Not typical flora. Typically cause diarrhea, but can be more serious. Most serious form is Salmonella typi - the cause of typoid fever. This enterodiarrhea is common in both humans and many animals. Typically this is contracted by eating contaminated food.
Bacteria. U.S. Streptococcus pyogenes. Scarlet fever (also called scarlatina in older literature) is an infectious disease which most commonly affects 4-8-year-old children. Symptoms include sore throat, fever and a characteristic red rash. Scarlet fever is usually spread by inhalation. There is no vaccine, but the disease is effectively treated with antibiotics. Most of the clinical features are caused by erythrogenic toxin, a substance produced by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep.) when it is infected by a certain bacteriophage. Before the availability of antibiotics, scarlet fever was a major cause of death. It also sometimes caused late complications, such as glomerulonephritis and endocarditis leading to heart valve disease, all of which were protracted and often fatal afflictions at the time.
Bacteria. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus. The bacteria grow in shellfish and produce an enterotoxin. If people consume the shellfish in a non-cooked or under-cooked state, they are infected with the enterotoxin and experience severe diarrhea (depending on how much shellfish they ate).
Bacteria. U.S. & World. Zoonotic. Shigella dysenteriae. Similar to Salmonellosis in that it is often contracted by eating contaminated food. It produces an incapacitating diarrhea by producing an inflammed large intestine that cannot do its normal liquid resorption. Treated with fluid replacement and antibiotics.
Bacteria. U.S. Staphylococcus aureus. Associated with many virulence factors: coagulase, hyaluronidase, staphylokinase, Dnase, Lipase, penicillinase, hemolysins, leukocidin, enterotoxin, exfoliative toxin, toxic shock syndrome toxin. Typically found in/on humans but takes advantage of poor hygiene, nutrition, tissue injury, another infection, or immunodeficiency. MRSA are a real problem. The disease range between localized boils to systemic infections. Follicles, furuncles, carbuncles, impetigo, are skin diseases. Bone abscess. Bacteremia with possible endocarditis. Food poisoning due to enterotoxin. Toxic shock syndrome due to toxic shock syndrome toxin. Necrotizing fascitis (flesh eating) is becoming more of a problem, especially if it is caused by a MRSA.
Bacteria. U.S. Treponema pallidum.sexually transmitted disease. Used to be a major issue In the U.S. but is not any more because penicillin usually cures it. It has three stages. In between each stage it appears to go away; primary is when you have the lesion (chancre) at the site of infection. Secondary the bacteriums has spread and you have lesions on other parts of your body, possibly a rash. You also have fever, and lymph node pain. Tertiary - bacteria has spread further to brain, heart, liver, etc. Gummas are necrotic lesions found in tertiary syphillis and may be found on the body or internally on organs. There is also a congenital form of syphyllis because the bacterium can cross the placenta. It causes serious disease.
Bacteria. U.S. Clostridium tetani. Commonly called lockjaw because of the clenching of the teeth. The spores of the bacteria usually enter the body through an accidental puncture, wounds, burns, umbilical stumps, frostbite, and crushed body parts. It must grow anaerobically so a superficial wound in not enough. While it grows it produces tetanospasmin a toxin that blocks the release of acetylcholinesterase. This is necessary to stop the action of acetylcholine that causes a nerve impulse to be sent. In the absence of the inhibitor, the nerve cell continues to fire and keeps the muscle contracting. Death, if it occurs, is usually due to paralysis of the respiratory muscles. We do have an antitoxin that can be used, but it does not unbind tetanospasmin that is already bound to acetylcholinesterase. There is also a vaccine available, with a booster needed every 10 years. If you step on a nail, it is likely that they will give you this booster.
Bacteria. Bartonella quintana. This is not a big problem today, but was in WWI where men stood in water-logged trenches that had rats, fleas and lice in them. A flu-like disease that is not usually fatal.
Bacteria. Helicobacter pylori. We once thought ulcers were due to worrying and overproduction of stomach acid that ate away the lining of the stomach. We now know that it is due to this bacterium which grows in the stomach producing acid that eats away the lining. 90% of stomah and duodenal ulcers caused by this bacterium. Can be treated with antibiotic.
Bacteria. U.S. Bordetella pertussis. One of the top 15 most common communicable disease in the U.S. An acute respiratory syndrome characterized by a unique cough in which the patient is struggling to intake air to get breath. It produces a toxin that destroys ciliary cells, leading to mucus buildup and blockage of airways. There is a vaccine available, DTaP.
Bacteria. U.S. Zoonotic. Yersinia pestis. This was the cause of the plague (Black Death) in the middle ages. Many , many people died because of this. It is transmitted through wild animals or semidomestic animals or infected humans. It is found in many small rodents without causing the disease. When people figured out that the plague was caused by the rat population, they started on a rat eradication program and this greatly reduced the transmission of the plague. The plague can be transmitted by fleas that bite the rodent and then the human. There are three forms 1) bubonic - bacteria multiplies in flea bite, enters lymph, causing necorsis and swelling, which is called a bubo. 2) Septicemic - baceria in blood and elicits virulence factors that cause intravascular coagulation and subcutaneous hemorrhage and purpura - black plague. 3) Pneumonic - infection localized to lungs and is highly contagious by respiratory droplets. This is fatal without treatment.
Alpha- hemolyitic Streptococcis
Bacteria. U.S. S. mutans and others. Subacute endocarditis and dental caries. Because they reside in the gums, teeth and oral cavity, they cause diseases of the oral cavity.... Largely tooth decay and gum disease. However, in cases where there are disturbances in the gums (abscesses, dental work, injury), the bacteria may enter the blood stream and can cause bacteremia, meningitis, abdominal infection and subacute endocarditis. For this reason, dental patients that have known heart valve defects are given antibiotics prophylactically before they go to the dentist.
Cat- scratch Fever
Bacteria. Zoonotic. Bartonella henselae. A disease of vet techs and veterinarians. Contracted from a cat scratch. Produces lymph node soreness within 1-2 weeks of being scratched. Very rarely it can cause complications in immunocompromised individuals.
Bacteria. U.S. & World. Mycobacterium tyberculosis. People that are immunocompromised, suffer from poor nutrition, have poor access to medical care, or who have suffered lung damage are more predisposed to contract TB. There are many carriers of the disease in the U.S. and the world. It is transmitted by respiratory secretions, but most people can fight it off. About one in 15 develop the clinical disease. It progresses slowly, if untreated, into primary tuberculosis. This causes inflammation of the lungs where your white blood cells are fighting the disease. They surround the bacteria and kill it, leaving behind a hard calcified tubercle that can be seen in lung x-rays. If your immune system cannot kill it off the primary TB can expand into other areas of your lungs and bronchial tubes, causing secondary TB. The symptoms are more severe resulting in violent coughing, greenish or bloody sputum, fever, anorexia, weight loss fatigue. If untreated, the mortality rate is 60%. However, we do have very effective antibiotics. For a good acting job of what it is like to have TB, watch Doc Holiday in the movie Tombstone. In rare instances the TB can move out of the lung system and go to other parts of the body (extrapulmonary TB). The outlook is not good if this happens. TB is diagnosed using the Mantoux test, which is a skin reactivity test, and looking for tubercles in x-rays.
Bacteria. U.S. Zoonosis. Francisella tularensis. A disease transmitted to humans from infected animals, especially rabbits. Causes flu-like system. Can get into the system or pulmonary system and cause death in about 10% of the cases.
Bacteria. U.S. & World. Salmonella typhi. Spread usually by ingestion of contaminated food or water. This is why it is a problem in third-world countries, but not the U.S. There are four stages, usually each about a week long. First stage is malaise, headache, cough and possibly a bloody nose. Second week - the patient lies prostrate with high fever around 104 degrees F. Delirium is frequently found. Rose spots appear on the lower chest and abdomen in about 33% of patients. Abdomen is distended and painful in the right lower quadrant. Diarrhea occurs with 6-8 stools per day. Third weeks can have intestinal hemorrhaging, intestinal perforation, encephalitis, neuropsychiatric symptoms with picking at bedclothes or imaginary objects. Fever is high and oscillates. Dehydration ensues and patient becomes delirious. Fatality is in the 10-30% range. If the patient gets better, it usually happens near the end of the third week when the fever starts subsding and the patient normally gets better in the fourth week.
Bacteria.U.S. Zoonotic. Brucella abortus, Brucella suis. A disease of farm animals that can be transmitted to humans. It causes a fluctuating fever with flu-like symptoms. Goes away - comes back-goes away-comes back, etc. Can last as long as a year. It is sometimes called undulant fever or Bang disease.
Bacteria.U.S. & World. Zoonotic. Vibrio cholera. The bacterium produces a strong entertoxin that impairs the function of the intestines. Water is not resorbed and eletrolytes (salts) are lost. The diarrhea, dehydration, and electrolyte loss can cause death, as was experienced in Haiti where tens of thousands of people died of cholera. The disease is usually contracted from drinking contaminated water in countries where they do not have good water treatment capabiliities. Treatment is rehydration and antibiotics.
Bacteria. Mycoplasma pneumonia. This is often called walking pneumonia and is characterized by a dry hacking cough and a general feeling of not feeling well and being tired. Sometimes a headache. Some people with very mild cases do not even know that they have it.
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