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13 terms

Chapter 5

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igneous rock
rock formed by the solidification of molten magma
lava
rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanos
extrusive
fine-grained igneous rock that forms when magma cools quickly at or near Earth's surface
intrusive
rocks that form from magma below the surface
partial melting
the process by which different minerals in rock melt at different temperatures
fractional crystallization
The process by which the crystals formed in a cooling magma are segregated from the remaining liquid at progressively lower temperatures.
Bowen's reaction series
the simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point
felsic
Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.
mafic
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color
ultramafic
Igneous rocks with low silica content and very high levels of magnesium and iron. Periodite, dunites, and doirite are examples.
porphyritic
(of rocks) consisting of porphyry or containing large crystals in a fine groundmass of minerals
pegmatite
a form of igneous rock consisting of extremely coarse granite resulting from the crystallization of magma rich in rare elements
kimberlite
a rare type of peridotite that sometimes contains diamonds