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igneous rock

rock formed by the solidification of molten magma


rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanos


fine-grained igneous rock that forms when magma cools quickly at or near Earth's surface


rocks that form from magma below the surface

partial melting

the process by which different minerals in rock melt at different temperatures

fractional crystallization

The process by which the crystals formed in a cooling magma are segregated from the remaining liquid at progressively lower temperatures.

Bowen's reaction series

the simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point


Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.


describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color


Igneous rocks with low silica content and very high levels of magnesium and iron. Periodite, dunites, and doirite are examples.


(of rocks) consisting of porphyry or containing large crystals in a fine groundmass of minerals


a form of igneous rock consisting of extremely coarse granite resulting from the crystallization of magma rich in rare elements


a rare type of peridotite that sometimes contains diamonds

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