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our awareness of ourselves and the environment, changes in predictable ways without help from drugs

biological rythm

periodic fluctuation in a biological system, may or may not have psychological implications

circadian rythm

biological rythm with a period of about 24 hours

SCN suprachiasmatic

area of brain containing biological clock that governs circadian rythms


a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that is involved in the regulation of daily biological rythms

seasonal affective disorder

a controversial disorder in which a person expereinces depression during winter and improved mood in spring

REM sleep

sleep periods characterized by eye movement loss of muscle tone and vivid dreams

sleep apnea

disorder in which breathing briefly stops during sleep causing person to choke and gasp and awaken

lucid dreams

dreamer is aware of dreaming

psychoanalytic theory of dreams

they allow us to express forbidden or unrealistic wishes and desires that have been forced into the unconscious part of the mind and disguised as symbolic images

cognitive approach to dreams

emphasizes current concerns but it makes no clams about problem dolving during sleep

activation synthesis theory of dreams

dreams are not children of an idle brain rather they are result of neurons firing in pons


procedure, practitioner suggests changes in a sunjects sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, behavior

sociocognitive explanation of hypnosis

effects of hypnosis result from an interaction between the social influence of the hypnotist and the abilities, beliefs and explanations of the subject

psychoactive drugs

drugs capable of influenceing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior


drugs produce feelings of excitement confidence and well being or euphoria, speed up activity in CNS


drugs that slow activity in the CNS


drugs that relieve pain and produce euphoria


increased resistance to a drugs effects accompanying continued use

think drink effect

men behaved more belligerentlyw hen they thought they were drinking vodka than when they thought they were drinking water, regardless of the actual content

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