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78 terms

Sociobiology

STUDY
PLAY
Science
Systematic study of the natural world--based on testable explanations and predictions--a way of pursuing knowledge
Science as a process
bases on assumption that nature is knowable-- limited to repeatable phenomena-- blind to miracles
Consilience
Unity of knowledge from all parts of human understanding-- boundaries of academic discplines are arbitrary
Nature is knowable
Science
Nature is unknowable
Pseudoscience
Pseudoscience
belief or practice presented as science but does not follow the scientific method; not based on hypothesis; not tested with evidence
Magical Thinking
idiosyncratic methods; based on mystery and magic; conclusions never tested
Scientific thinking
repeatable methods; based on evidence; all hypotheses tested
Alternative medicines: Pseudoscience
Chiropractric medicine; Acupuncture; Chinese herbal medicine
Alternative medicine: validated by science
attempt to gain special insight to the present or future; through contract with occult or supernatural forces; reading signs, events omens
Pseudoscience: Divination
Tea leaves, cards, palms, faces, skulls
Pseudoscience: Magic
Shamans, Wizards, Holy men, Witchcraft, Sorcery
Pseudoscience: Parapsychology/Paranormal
Extrasensory perception (ESP); Telepathy, Psychokinesis, Precognition and Clairvoyance; Channeling (communicating with the dead)
Limits of Science
Right and Wrong; what to do, how to behave; meaning
Pheromones
secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers social response in members of the same species
Cells
The basic unit of all living things
Chromosomes
threadlike structure within the nucleus of the DNA containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
Genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
Genomes
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
Mutations
Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity; change in DNA
Hormones
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another tissue
Behavior
(psychology) the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation
Social Cues
psychological term used to describe the non-verbal hints to guide conversation.
100 billion-- 200 types
Cells
Pseudoscience: Reincarnation
Belief that the soul or spirit returns after death to live in a new body; Hinduism, Jainism
Human
32,000 genes; 22 autosomes; 2 sex chromosomes
DNA
Information in sequence of base pairs (A,T,C,G)-- Adenine, Thymine, Cytocine, Guanine
Protein
Chemical compounds, basis of metabolism,
Nervous System
The body system of nervous tissues--organized into the brain,spinal courd, and nerves--that send and receive messages and integreate the body's activities.
Brain
that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers
Thyroid
part of the endocrine system that produces hormones that regulate metabolism
Stomach
an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal
Goands
Organ that produces sex cells
Cortisol
heart rate, stress, blood sugar
Melatonin
Sleep cycle
Oxytocin
libido, stress, blood pressure
Thyroxin
thermostat
Leptin
Hunger
Sertonin
Mood and memory
Estrogen & Progesterone
Body weight, stress, irritability, migranes, depression
Testosterone
Sexual desire, muscle strength, bone density
Sensory Reception
Physical stimulation of the sense organs, signals to the central nervous system, awareness and understanding of the environment
Categorical Perception
The mental perception of distinct categories (colors) from sensory information that varies along a continuum
Grandmother cells
Neurons that represents a complex by specific concept or object
Mirror Neurons
Neuron that 'mirror' the behavior of others; found in primates and some birds; in humans found in the premotor cortex
Sub-Cortical Regions
automatic behaviors, breathing, sleeping, balance, coordination, hormonal regulation, hunger, thirst, growth
Cerbral cortex- Outer part
Thinking and higher functions
Frontal Lobes
Executive functions: self-control, planning, reasoning, abstract thought
Parietal lobes
integrating sensory information from various sense organs, knowledge of numbers and relationships, manipulation of objects
Temporal Lobes
auditory perception, speech and vision, memory (hippocampus)
Occipital lobes
vision
Sensory
inputs
Motor
outputs
Sensory Acclimation
awareness diminishes despite continuation of the stimulus
Pariental, Temporal, and Occipital lobes
organize sensory information to a coherent model of our environment
Prefrontal areas
involved in planning actions
Consciousness
ability to experience or feel, wakefulness, sense of self 'I', executive control of the mind
Unconscious
Not conscious, lack of responsiveness to external stimuli
Inborn
existing from birth
Acquired
learned or developed during life
Morality
a basic design feature of the human mind, allows us to live in large, cohesive, cooperative groups, blinds as much as binds
Kin selection
favors behaviors that increase the reproductive success of an organism and its close relatives-- those who cooperate have more descendents
Prefrontal Cortex
Attention and consciousness, repressing selfish, impulsive behaviors
Pragmatists
balance many values and ideas; make good leaders when the need is to balance many conflicting problems and objectives
Purists
focus on a few basic principles; make good leaders in times of crisis when moral clarity is needed
Politics
the way social groups make decisions
Conservatives
nobility and clergy-- status quo; preserve the existing state of affairs
Liberals
Commoners and merchants
Democrats
Freedom, Equality, Fairness
Republicans
Liberty, Loyality, Social order
Emphasize values that advance social justice and require change
Liberals
Values that maintain tradition and reisist social change
Conservatives
Truman
Dem
Eisenhower
Rep
Lincoln
Rep
Gandhi
Congress
MLK
No party
Cognitive Psychology
mental processes, how people remember, think, speak, solve problems