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One example of a chemical in food that is not a nutrient is


Essential nutrients

must be obtained through diet.

How many grams of carbohydrate are in a product thatcontains 160 carbohydrate calories?


Which of the following supplies the most amount of protein?


Carbohydrates, proteins and _______ are the macronutrients.


Clinical trials include two groups, an experimental group and a _______ group.


Food habits are usually the last traditions to change when an immigrant adapts to a new culture.


Unlike vitamins, large amounts of minerals cannot be toxic.


All of the following are considered cognitive influences on food choices EXCEPT

following religious rituals

A disadvantage of a double-blind study is that

they are expensive and require large numbers of subjects.

In a study of how vitamin E may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, one group was given a placebo, and the other group was given vitamin E supplements. The group that received the placebo was the

control group

Most people will not believe a health claim without some scientific evidence to support it.


A food that is not considered kosher is

a bird of prey

A hormone can be a lipid.


The Adequate Intakes (AIs) are determined through

observations of healthy individuals.

The FDA has approved the following health claim: High fat diets cause some types of cancer.


Low-sodium diets raise blood pressure


Which term best describes the balance as part of menu planning?

Selecting a variety of foods at each meal

Which of the following would be a meat alternative?


The most appropriate use of DRIs is a tool for planning and evaluating diets for large groups of people.


What is a difference between the food guide pyramid and the MyPyramid food guidance system?

The guidelines reinforcing the importance of physical activity.

What, according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, can ensure food safety?

Cooking foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.

A claim that describes the potential effect of a food, food component, or a dietary supplement is a

structure/function claim.

MyPyramid shows that the foundation of a healthy diet is made up of meat and dairy products.


Which of the following is not one of the 9 key areas addressed in the 2005 Dietary guidelines for Americans?

Genetically modified foods.

The Recommended Dietary Allowance is the daily intake level that meets the needs of most people in a life-stage and gender group


The ______ are the maximum levels of daily nutrient intakes that are unlikely to pose health risks to almost all individuals in the group for whom they are designed.

Tolerable Upper Intake Level(s)

Diets that contain good sources of potassium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure and stroke.


Is the Daily Value on a food label the same as the Dietary Reference Intake for the same nutrient?

No. They are not at all the same.

How many kilocalories are in a meal that has 25 grams of fat, 10 grams of protein, and 70 grams of carbohydrate?

545 kcalories pp 17

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include all of the following EXCEPT

Do not drink alcohol.

Adequate calcium and Vitamin D along with regular exercise may reduce the risk of osteoporosis


Consuming whole grains may reduce risk of cancer.


Intake of ______ may reduce risk of cancer

citrus fruits, berries, flax

Grapes and red wine contain phytochemicals that appear to reduce the risk of ______

heart disease

The _____ is an NIH organization established to stimulate, develop and support objective scientific research on complementary and alternative medicine.


Which of the following statements about supplement labels is true?

A good indicator of quality is the USP(Pharmacopeia) mark.

If their access to sunlight is restricted, infants may need supplemental vitamin D


Megadoses are doses of a nutrient ____ or more times the recommended amount


Taking supplemental calcium prior to and during pregnancy can reduce the incidence of birth defects


The ____ decides whether to approve additives.


Direct additives are

substances that are added to food for a special purpose.

Free radicals can have detrimental effects on cells, especially DNA


What is/are the benefit(s) of phytochemicals?

they neutralize free radicals, they modify the way hormones affect the body, some are able to modify estrogen metabolism

Soy may contribute to maintenace of bone health and immune function.


Daily Values are

A set of nutrient intake standards to represent the need of "typical" consumers and used as standards for expressing nutrient content on food labels

The heart pumps fluid through the vascular and lymphatic systems.


Proper functioning of the ileocecal valve is most important

when the chyme passes from the small intestine to the large intestine.

The ______ is the longest part of the small intestine.


The glycemic index measures the effect of a food on blood glucose levels


Cellulose is an insoluble fiber.


This type of dietary fiber gives fruit its body and helps it keep it shape.


Pectins are dietary fibers that are found in skeletal muscle.


The disaccharide that seldom is found in foods, but occurs when starches are broken down is


Carbohydrates contain ___ kilocalories per gram


Although brain cells prefer glucose as their main source of energy, they can adapt to use ketone bodies.


People suffering from phenylketonuria should not take the artificial sweetener


If people have diabetes mellitus, their bodies either do not produce enough _____, or do not use it properly.


Nutritive sweeteners include monosaccharides, disaccharides, and sugar alcohols.


Adult Americans should consume about ___ percent of their energy intake as carbohydrate.


Milk and milk products are rich in _____, a simple carbohydrate


The ______ of a kernel is the part that grows into a new plant.


Lignins are digestible


The body's preferred fuel source is ____________.


Maltose is a

glucose-glucose disaccharide

Starch is the major storage form of carbohydrate in plants


Hydrochloric acid is made by stomach glands


What would happen if pepsin was not released in the stomach after eating?

proteins would be not be digested

The correct pathway for bile is the gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine.


Another name for the alimentary canal is the

GI tract.

Which organ does not contribute any enzymes for digestion?


The gallbladder mainly functions to

store and concentrate bile from the liver

Vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed without the presence of

intrinsic factor

Hormones are not involved in GI regulation.


Doctors recommend that patients with GERD avoid foods such as chocolate and coffee.


Which food would not be a concentrated source of fiber?

enriched bread

The digestion of starch begins in the


After it has done its work, most bile is reabsorbed and returned to the ____ for recycling.


Chronic pain in the upper abdomen is often referred to as ________.

functional dyspepsia

Dietary supplements are

any product taken by mouth that contains so-called dietary ingredients.

Which of the following is not an assisting organ of the GI tract?


Flatus composition depends largely on dietary carbohydrate intake and the activity of the colon''s bacterial population.


There are 2 different pairs of salivary glands


Fatty acids contain the following atoms EXCEPT for


The polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid, is abundant in


The three main classes of lipids are triglycerides, lipids, and cholesterols.


Eicosanoids influencE

inflammatory processes, blood vessel dilation, blood clotting.

All of the following are functions of triglycerides EXCEPT

lipid transport.

Phospholipids are found in

plant and animal foods.

The difference between the chemical structure of triglycerides and phospholipids is that

phospholipids contain a phosphate group instead of a third fatty acid.

Oleic acid is classified as a

omega-9 fatty acid

Cholesterol occurs only in foods of animal origin.


Fat provides the majority of a body's resting energy.


Essential Fatty Acid deficiency is extremely rare


Typically, a tablespoon of butter has more total fat than a tablespoon of margarine does, but margarine has more calories.


The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends a reduction in the following EXCEPT for


Soluble fiber may help lower cholesterol levels because

soluble fibers bind to bile acids so that the bile acids are excreted in the feces.

Oxidized fats can damage body tissues, but people do not consume them because

they taste bad.

Fatty acids differ in chain length from _____ to _____ carbons.

4, 24

_____ picks up cholesterol from arterial plaques, reducing their accumulation and picks up cholesterol released by dying cells.


Most sources recommend that Americans consume no more than 35 percent of calories as fat.


People with type 2 diabetes require insulin as part of their treatment.


To reduce homocysteine levels in the blood the following nutrients are important

vitamins B12, B6, and folate.

Instead of glycerol, ______ serves as the backbone of olestra.


Cholesterol is necessary for the synthesis of


There are 20 different amino acids your body can choose from to build proteins. ____ are nonessential and ______ are essential.

11, 9

What condition would bring about a negative nitrogen balance?

high fever

Which person would have the lowest protein needs when expressed as grams per kilogram of weight?

a 17-year-old female

What is the least number of amino acids in a oligopeptide?


If the diet does not supply enough blood proteins, edema will occur because

blood proteins attract fluid from cells to the capillaries.

Which of the following is a motor protein?

none of the above

An example of a good complementary food combination is

a whole wheat bagel and peanut butter.

A pesco-vegetarian will eat

dairy products, eggs, and fish.

Lacto-ovo vegetarians could have a hard time getting adequate amounts of _____ in their diets.


The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score accounts for

digestibility of the protein & amino acids in food.

Marasmus develops more slowly than kwashiorkor and results from chronic PEM.


Just as glucose is the basic building block of carbohydrates, _____ are the basic building blocks of protein.

amino acids

_____ is the most abundant fibrous protein in the body


High-protein plant foods also contribute complex carbohydrates to the body.


Of the ten top sources of protein in the American diet, eight are plant-based.


In the United States, PEM most often occurs in newborns.


Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions while being used up in the process.


The average person with bulimia is

at normal weight.

A person suffering from gastric erosion, pancreatic inflammation, and hypomagnesmia probably has which eating disorder?


The early warning signs of anorexia include the following except for

limiting even intake of water for fear of added calories.

Psychological factors that are more common in the lives of persons with eating disorders include the following except for

supportive parents.

The syndrome characterized by restrictive eating, absence of menstruation, and low bone density is called ______.

the female athlete triad

As many as a million men struggle with eating disorders


Infantile anorexia was discovered when pediatricians began reporting a surprising number of young patients from affluent backgrounds with stunted growth due to poor nutrition.


What is the key difference between binge-eating disorder and bulimia?

the binge-eater does not attempt to purge


A is essential for normal muscle function
B: is essential for strong bones
C: coupled with regular exercise, slows the deterioration of the skeleton with age.

Alcoholics are commonly deficient in many minerals because

their diets are usually poor.

Which is the most effective treatment for a hangover?


With depleted vitamin K stores, alcoholics risk

bleeding and anemia

Alcohol affects

every organ system in the body

Men and women respond differently to alcohol


What is the first stage of liver destruction in alcoholics?

fatty liver

Which part of the GI tract has a higher risk of cancer due to alcoholism?

the entire GI tract has a higher risk of cancer

Impairment from alcohol begins with

your first drink

MEOS enzymes may be responsible for transforming acetaminophen into chemicals that can damage the liver.


Vitamin K is required for blood clotting and bone health


In a state of starvation, the body will burn all of its protein stores before its fat stores.


In what part of the cell does glycolysis take place?


This is the organelle in a cell that is the power-generator


Your body can make glucose through a process called photosynthesis.


Your body stores glycogen in your liver and muscles.


______ is particularly dangerous in uncontrolled type 1 diabetes


In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water join to form oxygen and _____.


Cytosol is

the fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell.

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