Nutrition Final

One example of a chemical in food that is not a nutrient is
Essential nutrients
must be obtained through diet.
How many grams of carbohydrate are in a product thatcontains 160 carbohydrate calories?
Which of the following supplies the most amount of protein?
Carbohydrates, proteins and _______ are the macronutrients.
Clinical trials include two groups, an experimental group and a _______ group.
Food habits are usually the last traditions to change when an immigrant adapts to a new culture.
Unlike vitamins, large amounts of minerals cannot be toxic.
All of the following are considered cognitive influences on food choices EXCEPT
following religious rituals
A disadvantage of a double-blind study is that
they are expensive and require large numbers of subjects.
In a study of how vitamin E may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, one group was given a placebo, and the other group was given vitamin E supplements. The group that received the placebo was the
control group
Most people will not believe a health claim without some scientific evidence to support it.
A food that is not considered kosher is
a bird of prey
A hormone can be a lipid.
The Adequate Intakes (AIs) are determined through
observations of healthy individuals.
The FDA has approved the following health claim: High fat diets cause some types of cancer.
Low-sodium diets raise blood pressure
Which term best describes the balance as part of menu planning?
Selecting a variety of foods at each meal
Which of the following would be a meat alternative?
The most appropriate use of DRIs is a tool for planning and evaluating diets for large groups of people.
What is a difference between the food guide pyramid and the MyPyramid food guidance system?
The guidelines reinforcing the importance of physical activity.
What, according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, can ensure food safety?
Cooking foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.
A claim that describes the potential effect of a food, food component, or a dietary supplement is a
structure/function claim.
MyPyramid shows that the foundation of a healthy diet is made up of meat and dairy products.
Which of the following is not one of the 9 key areas addressed in the 2005 Dietary guidelines for Americans?
Genetically modified foods.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance is the daily intake level that meets the needs of most people in a life-stage and gender group
The ______ are the maximum levels of daily nutrient intakes that are unlikely to pose health risks to almost all individuals in the group for whom they are designed.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level(s)
Diets that contain good sources of potassium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure and stroke.
Is the Daily Value on a food label the same as the Dietary Reference Intake for the same nutrient?
No. They are not at all the same.
How many kilocalories are in a meal that has 25 grams of fat, 10 grams of protein, and 70 grams of carbohydrate?
545 kcalories pp 17
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include all of the following EXCEPT
Do not drink alcohol.
Adequate calcium and Vitamin D along with regular exercise may reduce the risk of osteoporosis
Consuming whole grains may reduce risk of cancer.
Intake of ______ may reduce risk of cancer
citrus fruits, berries, flax
Grapes and red wine contain phytochemicals that appear to reduce the risk of ______
heart disease
The _____ is an NIH organization established to stimulate, develop and support objective scientific research on complementary and alternative medicine.
Which of the following statements about supplement labels is true?
A good indicator of quality is the USP(Pharmacopeia) mark.
If their access to sunlight is restricted, infants may need supplemental vitamin D
Megadoses are doses of a nutrient ____ or more times the recommended amount
Taking supplemental calcium prior to and during pregnancy can reduce the incidence of birth defects
The ____ decides whether to approve additives.
Direct additives are
substances that are added to food for a special purpose.
Free radicals can have detrimental effects on cells, especially DNA
What is/are the benefit(s) of phytochemicals?
they neutralize free radicals, they modify the way hormones affect the body, some are able to modify estrogen metabolism
Soy may contribute to maintenace of bone health and immune function.
Daily Values are
A set of nutrient intake standards to represent the need of "typical" consumers and used as standards for expressing nutrient content on food labels
The heart pumps fluid through the vascular and lymphatic systems.
Proper functioning of the ileocecal valve is most important
when the chyme passes from the small intestine to the large intestine.
The ______ is the longest part of the small intestine.
The glycemic index measures the effect of a food on blood glucose levels
Cellulose is an insoluble fiber.
This type of dietary fiber gives fruit its body and helps it keep it shape.
Pectins are dietary fibers that are found in skeletal muscle.
The disaccharide that seldom is found in foods, but occurs when starches are broken down is
Carbohydrates contain ___ kilocalories per gram
Although brain cells prefer glucose as their main source of energy, they can adapt to use ketone bodies.
People suffering from phenylketonuria should not take the artificial sweetener
If people have diabetes mellitus, their bodies either do not produce enough _____, or do not use it properly.
Nutritive sweeteners include monosaccharides, disaccharides, and sugar alcohols.
Adult Americans should consume about ___ percent of their energy intake as carbohydrate.
Milk and milk products are rich in _____, a simple carbohydrate
The ______ of a kernel is the part that grows into a new plant.
Lignins are digestible
The body's preferred fuel source is ____________.
Maltose is a
glucose-glucose disaccharide
Starch is the major storage form of carbohydrate in plants
Hydrochloric acid is made by stomach glands
What would happen if pepsin was not released in the stomach after eating?
proteins would be not be digested
The correct pathway for bile is the gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine.
Another name for the alimentary canal is the
GI tract.
Which organ does not contribute any enzymes for digestion?
The gallbladder mainly functions to
store and concentrate bile from the liver
Vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed without the presence of
intrinsic factor
Hormones are not involved in GI regulation.
Doctors recommend that patients with GERD avoid foods such as chocolate and coffee.
Which food would not be a concentrated source of fiber?
enriched bread
The digestion of starch begins in the
After it has done its work, most bile is reabsorbed and returned to the ____ for recycling.
Chronic pain in the upper abdomen is often referred to as ________.
functional dyspepsia
Dietary supplements are
any product taken by mouth that contains so-called dietary ingredients.
Which of the following is not an assisting organ of the GI tract?
Flatus composition depends largely on dietary carbohydrate intake and the activity of the colon''s bacterial population.
There are 2 different pairs of salivary glands
Fatty acids contain the following atoms EXCEPT for
The polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid, is abundant in
The three main classes of lipids are triglycerides, lipids, and cholesterols.
Eicosanoids influencE
inflammatory processes, blood vessel dilation, blood clotting.
All of the following are functions of triglycerides EXCEPT
lipid transport.
Phospholipids are found in
plant and animal foods.
The difference between the chemical structure of triglycerides and phospholipids is that
phospholipids contain a phosphate group instead of a third fatty acid.
Oleic acid is classified as a
omega-9 fatty acid
Cholesterol occurs only in foods of animal origin.
Fat provides the majority of a body's resting energy.
Essential Fatty Acid deficiency is extremely rare
Typically, a tablespoon of butter has more total fat than a tablespoon of margarine does, but margarine has more calories.
The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends a reduction in the following EXCEPT for
Soluble fiber may help lower cholesterol levels because
soluble fibers bind to bile acids so that the bile acids are excreted in the feces.
Oxidized fats can damage body tissues, but people do not consume them because
they taste bad.
Fatty acids differ in chain length from _____ to _____ carbons.
4, 24
_____ picks up cholesterol from arterial plaques, reducing their accumulation and picks up cholesterol released by dying cells.
Most sources recommend that Americans consume no more than 35 percent of calories as fat.
People with type 2 diabetes require insulin as part of their treatment.
To reduce homocysteine levels in the blood the following nutrients are important
vitamins B12, B6, and folate.
Instead of glycerol, ______ serves as the backbone of olestra.
Cholesterol is necessary for the synthesis of
There are 20 different amino acids your body can choose from to build proteins. ____ are nonessential and ______ are essential.
11, 9
What condition would bring about a negative nitrogen balance?
high fever
Which person would have the lowest protein needs when expressed as grams per kilogram of weight?
a 17-year-old female
What is the least number of amino acids in a oligopeptide?
If the diet does not supply enough blood proteins, edema will occur because
blood proteins attract fluid from cells to the capillaries.
Which of the following is a motor protein?
none of the above
An example of a good complementary food combination is
a whole wheat bagel and peanut butter.
A pesco-vegetarian will eat
dairy products, eggs, and fish.
Lacto-ovo vegetarians could have a hard time getting adequate amounts of _____ in their diets.
The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score accounts for
digestibility of the protein & amino acids in food.
Marasmus develops more slowly than kwashiorkor and results from chronic PEM.
Just as glucose is the basic building block of carbohydrates, _____ are the basic building blocks of protein.
amino acids
_____ is the most abundant fibrous protein in the body
High-protein plant foods also contribute complex carbohydrates to the body.
Of the ten top sources of protein in the American diet, eight are plant-based.
In the United States, PEM most often occurs in newborns.
Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions while being used up in the process.
The average person with bulimia is
at normal weight.
A person suffering from gastric erosion, pancreatic inflammation, and hypomagnesmia probably has which eating disorder?
The early warning signs of anorexia include the following except for
limiting even intake of water for fear of added calories.
Psychological factors that are more common in the lives of persons with eating disorders include the following except for
supportive parents.
The syndrome characterized by restrictive eating, absence of menstruation, and low bone density is called ______.
the female athlete triad
As many as a million men struggle with eating disorders
Infantile anorexia was discovered when pediatricians began reporting a surprising number of young patients from affluent backgrounds with stunted growth due to poor nutrition.
What is the key difference between binge-eating disorder and bulimia?
the binge-eater does not attempt to purge
A is essential for normal muscle function
B: is essential for strong bones
C: coupled with regular exercise, slows the deterioration of the skeleton with age.
Alcoholics are commonly deficient in many minerals because
their diets are usually poor.
Which is the most effective treatment for a hangover?
With depleted vitamin K stores, alcoholics risk
bleeding and anemia
Alcohol affects
every organ system in the body
Men and women respond differently to alcohol
What is the first stage of liver destruction in alcoholics?
fatty liver
Which part of the GI tract has a higher risk of cancer due to alcoholism?
the entire GI tract has a higher risk of cancer
Impairment from alcohol begins with
your first drink
MEOS enzymes may be responsible for transforming acetaminophen into chemicals that can damage the liver.
Vitamin K is required for blood clotting and bone health
In a state of starvation, the body will burn all of its protein stores before its fat stores.
In what part of the cell does glycolysis take place?
This is the organelle in a cell that is the power-generator
Your body can make glucose through a process called photosynthesis.
Your body stores glycogen in your liver and muscles.
______ is particularly dangerous in uncontrolled type 1 diabetes
In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water join to form oxygen and _____.
Cytosol is
the fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell.
Ketone bodies are not only used as an emergency energy source, but are used on an everyday basis.
Red blood cells have mitochondria.
The electron transport chain is located in the
mitochondrial membrane.
An alternative fuel that muscle cells can use or that the liver can convert to glucose is ______.
____ are the "work centers" of metabolism.
To extract energy from fat, the body first breaks down ______ into their components.
Your body can make long fatty-acid chains using a process called
Anabolic reactions build compounds. These reactions require energy.
The removal of the amino group (-NH2) from an amino acid is called
Leptin is produced in fat cells. It ______.
suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure
Energy output is the use of calories or energy for basic body functions.
_____ determines the interval between meals.
underwater weighing is not an accurate method of assessing body fatness.
Underweight is generally defined as having a BMI less than ____ kg/m2
Which lipid levels are likely to be abnormally low when a person is obese?
high-density lipoproteins
The sum of all energy expended is the
total energy expenditure.
Which of the following are three health risks of being overweight?
heart disease, gallbladder disease, diabetes
Obesity is easy to treat.
If a person is said to suffer from hyperplasia this means _____.
his or her fat tissue is likely to have bigger fat cells and more of them.
Sleep apnea refers to the inability to fall asleep.
If you want to lose weight, you must take in fewer calories than you expend.
Both men and women gain the most weight between __ and __ years of age.
25, 34
Working outside the home often leads to overweight because of a sedentary lifestyle and eating out more often.
The ABC model of behavior stands for
antecedents, behavior, consequences.
Weight management is the adoption of eating behaviors, which are designed to lose weight, though are not necessarily healthy.
Just the passage of food through the mouth may satisfy hunger, even if the food never reaches the stomach.
The lysosome is the semi fluid inside of the cell membrane.
Chronic consumption of excess selenium can lead to
brittle hair and nails.
A healthy diet has an average of 200 to 400 milligrams of potassium per day.
FALSE--See page 412
The oxygen energy system produces little ATP.
FALSE--See page 456
What happens to lactate after it diffuses through muscle cell membranes into the bloodstream?
it begins to accumulate, making cells more acidic.
Perceived exertion is the objective measurement of how difficult an effort is.
How do athletes who take carnitine supplements believe this will help their performance?
carnitine will help move long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria faster, increasing the use of fat as an energy source
Which would be the best food(s) to consume within an hour after intense exercise?
white bread and cheese
It can take 24 to 48 hours after an event to replenish glycogen stores.
In which activity would your body rely mostly on fast-twitch fibers?
100 meter dash
What determines the rate of muscle glycogen's depletion?
the intensity of the activity
The increased breakdown of red blood cells in the foot capillaries of long distance runners contributes to a low status of which nutrient?
Which would not result from a diet providing excess protein?
A: a high-fat diet
B: dehydration
C: diet will contribute to mineral losses
D: none of the above
Protein combined with carbohydrate in a postexercise meal increases glycogen synthesis more than carbohydrate alone.
Athletes should consume diets with less than 15 percent of energy from fat.
The rate at which a body sweats depends on the following factors except
Using sports drinks to replace electrolytes is suggested for activities that last a minimum of ____ hours.
What transports copper from the intestinal cells to the liver?
It is crucial to avoid getting too much vitamin A during pregnancy.
Pregnant women should avoid eating large amounts of fruit and vegetables rich in beta-carotene during pregnancy.
The embryonic stage of pregnancy lasts from
2 weeks after conception to 8 weeks.
What supplement should a pregnant woman take to avoid spina bifida in her baby?
folic acid
The energy RDA for breastfeeding women is 340 kilocalories per day higher than the RDA for non-pregnant, non-lactating women.
For most minerals, recommended intakes are ____ during pregnancy.
Which hormone stimulates the release of milk from the breast?
Woman who are vegans and breastfeed should take which supplement?
vitamin B12
: Maintenance, rather than improvement, of fitness should be the goal during pregnancy.
Until the 1960s few physicians saw a case of anorexia throughout the time they practiced medicine.
A preterm delivery occurs before
the 37th week of gestation.
For women of normal weight, the recommended weight gain during pregnancy is ____.
25 to 35 pounds
Which is not a maternal physiological change?
gastrointestinal motility speeds up to get more nutrients to the fetus
Which of the following is not a benefit of breastfeeding for the mother?
it is a reliable form of birth control
Obese women are at a greater risk of delivering a low-birth-weight baby.
What is the thick yellow fluid secreted by the breast during pregnancy and the first days after delivery?
With the exception of alcohol, no foods are completely off limits to pregnant women.
Low-birth-weight infants weigh less than
Where are most pregnancy hormones produced?
the placenta
What is not a feared risk associated with genetically modified foods?
humans may not be able to properly absorb nutrients from modified foods pp612-13
Organic foods are grown or produced without synthetic pesticides and without synthetic fertilizer.
Which food has the FDA approved irradiation for?
poultry and red meat to control spoilage
For safe storage of food, refrigerators should be set at 47 degrees F or colder.
Each year _____ deaths can be attributed to foodborne illnesses in the United States.
Salmonella occurs only in poultry and eggs.
Consuming eggs that are not cooked enough can lead to infection with which bacteria?
Which of the following is not found in poultry?
Listeria moncytogenes
The ____ regulates public drinking water and approves pesticides and other chemicals used in the environement.
The FDA enforces laws governing domestic and imported meat and poultry.
Food manufacturers have been reluctant to use irradiation on their products for fear of consumer rejection.
Pregnant women should not handle used cat litter because of risk of infection with
Toxoplasma gondii
Poultry breasts should be cooked to an internal temperature of
170 degrees F
The FDA oversees genetically modified foods as well as conventional foods.
Which of the following is not one of the most popular allergies according to the Food Allergy Network?
: Dioxins are
found in small amounts in paper plates and coffee filters.
Pathogenic microorganisms include
A: bacteria
B: viruses
C: parasites
Macular degeneration affects ___ percent of people between the ages of 75 and 85.
There is decreased saliva production in the elderly.
Many studies report high levels of well-being among elders.
Most cases of Alzheimer's disease begin after age 70.
Maintaining adequate calcium intake reduces the rate of
age-related bone loss
In the aging, aging skin is less able to synthesize
vitamin D.
Lead toxicity is defined as a blood level of ___ micrograms of lead per deciliter.
Which federal program was created to help prevent malnutrition and hunger in childhood?
Inadequate use of vitamin supplements by elders may result in hypervitaminosis.
Children with an adequate dietary intake of iron are less likely to suffer from lead toxicity.
An increase in dietary vitamin A during adolescence will help control acne.
What are three nutrients of particular concern during adolescence?
vitamin A, calcium, and iron
What is the first stage of adolescent growth?
To control bladder and bowel problems, an older adult may be advised to
increase fiber and fluid intake.
Which of the following does not contribute to lower absorption of calcium as one ages?
a reduction in the production of intrinsic factor
At what age do people start to lose their lean muscle mass?
Protein needs change as we age.
______ is a condition during pregnancy marked by high blood pressure, fluid retention, and protein in the urine.