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Food habits are usually the last traditions to change when an immigrant adapts to a new culture.
All of the following are considered cognitive influences on food choices EXCEPT
following religious rituals
A disadvantage of a double-blind study is that
they are expensive and require large numbers of subjects.
In a study of how vitamin E may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, one group was given a placebo, and the other group was given vitamin E supplements. The group that received the placebo was the
Which term best describes the balance as part of menu planning?
Selecting a variety of foods at each meal
The most appropriate use of DRIs is a tool for planning and evaluating diets for large groups of people.
What is a difference between the food guide pyramid and the MyPyramid food guidance system?
The guidelines reinforcing the importance of physical activity.
What, according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, can ensure food safety?
Cooking foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.
A claim that describes the potential effect of a food, food component, or a dietary supplement is a
Which of the following is not one of the 9 key areas addressed in the 2005 Dietary guidelines for Americans?
Genetically modified foods.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance is the daily intake level that meets the needs of most people in a life-stage and gender group
The ______ are the maximum levels of daily nutrient intakes that are unlikely to pose health risks to almost all individuals in the group for whom they are designed.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level(s)
Diets that contain good sources of potassium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure and stroke.
Is the Daily Value on a food label the same as the Dietary Reference Intake for the same nutrient?
No. They are not at all the same.
How many kilocalories are in a meal that has 25 grams of fat, 10 grams of protein, and 70 grams of carbohydrate?
545 kcalories pp 17
The _____ is an NIH organization established to stimulate, develop and support objective scientific research on complementary and alternative medicine.
Which of the following statements about supplement labels is true?
A good indicator of quality is the USP(Pharmacopeia) mark.
Taking supplemental calcium prior to and during pregnancy can reduce the incidence of birth defects
What is/are the benefit(s) of phytochemicals?
they neutralize free radicals, they modify the way hormones affect the body, some are able to modify estrogen metabolism
Daily Values are
A set of nutrient intake standards to represent the need of "typical" consumers and used as standards for expressing nutrient content on food labels
Proper functioning of the ileocecal valve is most important
when the chyme passes from the small intestine to the large intestine.
Although brain cells prefer glucose as their main source of energy, they can adapt to use ketone bodies.
If people have diabetes mellitus, their bodies either do not produce enough _____, or do not use it properly.
What would happen if pepsin was not released in the stomach after eating?
proteins would be not be digested
Flatus composition depends largely on dietary carbohydrate intake and the activity of the colon''s bacterial population.
The difference between the chemical structure of triglycerides and phospholipids is that
phospholipids contain a phosphate group instead of a third fatty acid.
Typically, a tablespoon of butter has more total fat than a tablespoon of margarine does, but margarine has more calories.
Soluble fiber may help lower cholesterol levels because
soluble fibers bind to bile acids so that the bile acids are excreted in the feces.
_____ picks up cholesterol from arterial plaques, reducing their accumulation and picks up cholesterol released by dying cells.
To reduce homocysteine levels in the blood the following nutrients are important
vitamins B12, B6, and folate.
There are 20 different amino acids your body can choose from to build proteins. ____ are nonessential and ______ are essential.
Which person would have the lowest protein needs when expressed as grams per kilogram of weight?
a 17-year-old female
If the diet does not supply enough blood proteins, edema will occur because
blood proteins attract fluid from cells to the capillaries.
The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score accounts for
digestibility of the protein & amino acids in food.
Just as glucose is the basic building block of carbohydrates, _____ are the basic building blocks of protein.
A person suffering from gastric erosion, pancreatic inflammation, and hypomagnesmia probably has which eating disorder?
The early warning signs of anorexia include the following except for
limiting even intake of water for fear of added calories.
Psychological factors that are more common in the lives of persons with eating disorders include the following except for
The syndrome characterized by restrictive eating, absence of menstruation, and low bone density is called ______.
the female athlete triad
Infantile anorexia was discovered when pediatricians began reporting a surprising number of young patients from affluent backgrounds with stunted growth due to poor nutrition.
What is the key difference between binge-eating disorder and bulimia?
the binge-eater does not attempt to purge
A is essential for normal muscle function
B: is essential for strong bones
C: coupled with regular exercise, slows the deterioration of the skeleton with age.
Which part of the GI tract has a higher risk of cancer due to alcoholism?
the entire GI tract has a higher risk of cancer
MEOS enzymes may be responsible for transforming acetaminophen into chemicals that can damage the liver.
Ketone bodies are not only used as an emergency energy source, but are used on an everyday basis.
An alternative fuel that muscle cells can use or that the liver can convert to glucose is ______.
Which lipid levels are likely to be abnormally low when a person is obese?
Which of the following are three health risks of being overweight?
heart disease, gallbladder disease, diabetes
If a person is said to suffer from hyperplasia this means _____.
his or her fat tissue is likely to have bigger fat cells and more of them.
Working outside the home often leads to overweight because of a sedentary lifestyle and eating out more often.
Weight management is the adoption of eating behaviors, which are designed to lose weight, though are not necessarily healthy.
Just the passage of food through the mouth may satisfy hunger, even if the food never reaches the stomach.
What happens to lactate after it diffuses through muscle cell membranes into the bloodstream?
it begins to accumulate, making cells more acidic.
How do athletes who take carnitine supplements believe this will help their performance?
carnitine will help move long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria faster, increasing the use of fat as an energy source
Which would be the best food(s) to consume within an hour after intense exercise?
white bread and cheese
The increased breakdown of red blood cells in the foot capillaries of long distance runners contributes to a low status of which nutrient?
Which would not result from a diet providing excess protein?
A: a high-fat diet
C: diet will contribute to mineral losses
D: none of the above
Protein combined with carbohydrate in a postexercise meal increases glycogen synthesis more than carbohydrate alone.
Using sports drinks to replace electrolytes is suggested for activities that last a minimum of ____ hours.
Pregnant women should avoid eating large amounts of fruit and vegetables rich in beta-carotene during pregnancy.
The energy RDA for breastfeeding women is 340 kilocalories per day higher than the RDA for non-pregnant, non-lactating women.
Until the 1960s few physicians saw a case of anorexia throughout the time they practiced medicine.
Which is not a maternal physiological change?
gastrointestinal motility speeds up to get more nutrients to the fetus
Which of the following is not a benefit of breastfeeding for the mother?
it is a reliable form of birth control
What is the thick yellow fluid secreted by the breast during pregnancy and the first days after delivery?
What is not a feared risk associated with genetically modified foods?
humans may not be able to properly absorb nutrients from modified foods pp612-13
Organic foods are grown or produced without synthetic pesticides and without synthetic fertilizer.
The ____ regulates public drinking water and approves pesticides and other chemicals used in the environement.
Food manufacturers have been reluctant to use irradiation on their products for fear of consumer rejection.
Pregnant women should not handle used cat litter because of risk of infection with
Which of the following is not one of the most popular allergies according to the Food Allergy Network?
To control bladder and bowel problems, an older adult may be advised to
increase fiber and fluid intake.
Which of the following does not contribute to lower absorption of calcium as one ages?
a reduction in the production of intrinsic factor
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