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William Berkeley

Virginian governor who disliked wretched bachelors (poor, endebted, discontented, and armed); disliked by wretched bachelors for friendly relations with Indians

Nathaniel Bacon

twenty-nine-year-old planter who led a 1676 rebellion of frontiersmen (wretched bachelors) against Berkeley's friendly relations with Indians; in Virginia; died suddenly of disease

Yarrow Mamout

a devout Muslim brought to Maryland as a slave, he eventually fought his freedom and settled in Georgetown

William Bradford

A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.

Matthew Hopkins

seventeenth-century English witch-hunter who urged that suspected witches be bound hand and foot and tossed in a pond (innocent would sink and drown, guilty would float)

indentured servitude

person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to america.

slave codes

early 18th century laws limited the rights of Blacks, gave almost absolute authority to white masters, color was the only factor in determining if someone subject to slave codes

headright system

system employed in Virginia and Maryland to encourage the importation of servant workers; whoever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire fifty acres of land


a new form of sermon in the Puritan churches in the mid-seventeenth century; preachers scolded parishioners for their waning piety

middle passage

the transatlantic sea voyage that brought slaves to the New World; the long and hazardous "middle" segment of a journey that began with a forced march to the African coast and ended with a treak into the American interior

freedom dues

necessities given to indentured servants once they were freed; included a few barrels of corn, a suit of clothes, and perhaps a small parcel of land

"witch hunting"

the legal lynching in 1692 of twenty individuals, ninteen of whom were hanged and one of whom was pressed to death; two dogs were also hanged; in Salem, Massachusetts; represented the widening social stratification of New England and the fear of many religious traditionalists that the Puritan heritage was being eclipsed by Yankee commercialism

Yankee ingenuity

was often necessary for New England colonists. Unlike the rich and fertile soil of Virginia, New England had poor soil as well as a harsh winter and had to rely on improvisation and other means for economic success.

family stability

more prevalent in New England than Chesapeake region because of lack of diseases, immigration as a family, longevity, and high birth rate


testimonials by individuals that they had received God's grace and therefore deserved to be admitted to the church as members of the elect

Bacon's Rebellion

1676 Virginian rebellion of frontiersmen (wretched bachelors) sparked by governor Berkeley's refusal to retaliate for a series of brutal Indian attacks on frontier settlements; killed Indians, chased Berkeley from Jamestown, and set fire to Jamestown; plundering and pilfering; crushed by Berkeley with cruelty of haging over twenty rebels; rebellion ignited resentments of landless former servants and pitted the frontiersmen against the gentry of the plantations; caused gentry to seek out African slaves

Leisler's Rebellion

an ill-starred and bloody insurgence that rocked NYC from 1689 to 1691; fueled by animosity between lordly landholders and aspiring merchants

Half-Way Covenant

1662, arrangement in Puritan churches which modified the covenant to admit to baptism the unconverted children of existing members; weakened the distinction between the elect and others; led to widening of church membership; afterwords, women became majority in Puritan churches

African American

black population brought from Africa to American colonies as slaves

New England Primer

widely used New England schoolbook that taught lessons of social duty and Christian faith, as well as reading and writing

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