4 terms

Child and Adolescent Development Quiz 8

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Maccoby
-The sex difference in gender of preferred playmates is large in absolute magnitude compared to sex differences found when children are observed or tested in nonsocial situations.
-Children choose same sex playmates spontaneously in situations in which they are not under pressure from adults to do so.
-Previous observational studies in preschools had indicated that girls are often found in locations closer to the teacher than are boys.
Lytton and Romney
-No quantitative review of studies of sex differentiated socialization has however to our knowledge appeared and this is the gap our study attempts to fill.
-The evidence presented here suggests that sex differences that remain (e.g. in high mathematical reasoning ability or aggression) are not due to parents directly and systematically reinforcing stereotypical behavior abilities in their children.
Schmader
-A growing body of evidence suggests that racial and gender differences in testing situations might be created and maintained by stereotypes themselves.
-The primary purpose of the current research was to test group identification as a moderator of stereotype threat effects when that social identity is implicated by one's performance at a stereotype relevant task.
-Responses to positive emotions were reverse scored and averaged with responses to the negative items to create a reliable index of pretest anxiety.
Nguyen and Ryan
-The present meta-analytic study aims at investigating the extent to which the activation of stereotype threat is detrimental to stereotyped test takers performance on cognitive ability tests by aggregating the findings on stereotype threat experiments.
-Stereotype threat theory does propose three moderators- stereotype relevance, domain identification, and test difficulty- which are described in the next section and investigated in this study.
-In this meta-analysis, we examine the type of stereotype activation cue- subtle, moderately explicit, or blatant and the type of threat removal strategy (implicit v.s. explicit) as potential moderators.
-In this meta-analysis, we tested the viability of a universal stereotype threat reaction considering potential differential effects of two types of stereotypes (race and gender) related to test performance.
Moderators
-Anxiety
-Self-Efficacy
-How the individual think about and evaluate their emotions
-These interesting findings lend partial credence to the theory of stereotype reactance, which posits that stereotyped individuals might percieve a blatant negative stereotype as a limit to their freedom and ability to perform, thereby ironically invoking behaviors that are inconsistent with the stereotype.
-Stereotype threat are also manifested when cognitive ability tests are only moderately difficult (i.e. consisting of items of mixed difficultly) which suggests applicability to many tests used in educational of employment testing settings.