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Psych 312 final
Terms in this set (66)
an eating disorder found chiefly among young women, characterized by dramatic and severe self-induced weight loss
an eating disorder found primarily among young women, characterized by a pattern of binge eating and extreme weight loss measures, including self-induced vomiting
ex: help children be less stuck in gender-ideas: let them know that they are male/female due to PHYSICAL traits (penis/vagina)
"the best of both"
-masculine and famine are not polar opposites, but separate dimensions.
-can have strengths of both masculine and feminine
-____ provides greater psychological flexibility; better mental health
-separates character traits from gender (gender is not determinant of traits)
A strategy in which bilingual individuals produce an utterance in one language that contains one or more "guest" words from the other, without violating the grammar of either language.
-*allows ties to heritage, but also allows ties to who they strive to be
-model based on the observation that there are five critical personality dimensions:
1. extraversion (how outgoing or energetic)
2. agreeableness (how kind or sympathetic-try hard to understand and feel what other people are going through, care a lot)
3. neuroticism (how anxious or tense- this is the one negative label)
4. conscientiousness (how responsible or organized, reliable)
5. openness to experience (how curious or imaginative)
What are the dimensions of the Five-Factor model?
refers to the point in the identity development process that characterizes an adolescent at a given time.
-this is where you are in the search for yourself.
-to determine this, most researchers have focused on the work of James Marcia and his processes of exploration (experimenting with different ideas about occupations, values, relationships, etc) and commitment (making choices among various alternatives)
-assigned to one of the four:
1. identity achievement
3. identity foreclosure
4. identity diffusion
the individual has established a coherent sense of identity--that is, has made commitments after a period of exploration.
-strong sense of self, positive outcome. knowing one's goals, aspirations, and preferences
-moderate levels of anxiety
-self-directed and independent
-intimate relationships with others
-loving and caring towards parents
-cognitive style is thoughtful, seeks out other ideas, but makes own decision
-more common in late adolescence
the premature establishment of a sense of identity, before sufficient role experimentation has occurred. Accepting the identity forced on you by parents or circumstances.
-the first step towards moratorium
-repressed anxiety, denial of anxiety
-needs external affirmation to support S-E
-very dependent on others, needy
-stereotyped relationships with others
-loving and respectful of parents
-tends to simplifies issues
-defers to authority rather than think for themselves
-relatively common in early adolescence
The incoherent, disjointed, incomplete sense of self characteristic of not having resolved the crisis of identity. Losing interest in finding the Self. Unable to define self, not particularly worried about who they want to be, strongly influenced by the people they are around.
-experiences moderate levels of anxiety
-dependent on others, needy
-isolated or stereotyped relationships with others
-withdrawn from parents
-tend to complicate issues and find only the grey areas
-goes with flow/peer pressure on major issues, like a chameleon, they reflect their surroundings on complex issues
a period during which individuals are free from excessive obligations and responsibilities and can therefore experiment with different roles and personalities. Seeking an identity--looking for yourself. active exploration of possibilities.
-high levels of anxiety. don't feel settled
-high levels of self-esteem
-self-directed and independent. not needy
-capable of truly intimate relationships with others
-distancing themselves from parental influence
-tend to be very thoughtful in making decisions
-procrastinates in making decisions
-avoids others' ideas-wants to think for themselves
authoritarian parenting style
parents who use punitive, absolute, and forceful discipline, and who place a premium on obedience and conformity
permissive parenting style
style of parenting marked by submitting to children's desires, making few demands, and using little punishment
uninvolved parenting style
Minimize the time and effort involved in childrearing
No long range goals or policies for child
No rules or principles--little conduct training
authoritative parenting style
parents who use warmth, firm control, and rational, issue-oriented discipline, in which emphasis is placed on the development of self-direction
conventional moral reasoning
According to Kohlberg, the second level of moral development, which occurs during the childhood and early adolescence and is characterized by reasoning that is based on the rules and conventions of society.
-focuses on how an individual will be judged by others for behaving a certain way.
-the correctness of society's rules is not questioned. Individuals do their duty by upholding and respecting the social order.
-RULES ARE EMPHASIZED, EITHER SOCIAL MORES AND ROLES OR THE LEGAL CODE OR LAWS
Stage 3: Good Boy Orientation (fulfilling social obligations and roles)
Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation
post-conventional moral reasoning
In Kohlberg's theory, the stage of moral development during which society's rules and conventions are seen as relative and subjective rather than an authoritative; also called principled moral reasoning.
-THE INDIVIDUAL HAS INTERNALIZED A SET OF MORAL PRINCIPLES THAT SHOULD APPLY TO ALL SITUATIONS AND ALL SOCIETIES. IT IS MORALITY THAT IS ABSTRACT, BUT JUST AND FAIR.
-one's internal moral compass is developed and guides one's moral behavior.
-post conventional reasoning goes beyond the rules and roles to a social consciousness.
Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation (focus is on social agreement implicit in the legal code and social expectations)
Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles Orientation (coming to a higher level of insight through reasoning and mediation)
pre-conventional moral reasoning
according to Kohlberg, the first level of moral reasoning, which is typical of children and is characterized by reasoning that is based on rewards and punishments associated with different courses of action
-EXTRINSIC CONSEQUENCES ARE EMPHASIZED
-characterized by reference to external and physical events.
-decisions are not based on society's standards, rules, or conventions
Stage 1: Obedience or Punishment Orientation
Stage 2: Instrumental Purpose Orientation or Market place morality
Caregiver is secure base to explore environment from
-60% of american infants
-sensitive and responsive mothers
-babies explore with confidence but keep eyes on mom
-babies try to remain close, are distressed at separation
-babies go to mom at reunion, ask to be held and cuddle in for comfort
-being with mom makes them feel safe and loved
-studies show that infants who have had a secure attachment are more likely to grow in psychologically healthy and socially skilled children.
shows insecurity by avoiding the caregiver
-15% of american infants
-moms are responsive to needs but not sensitive to baby's emotions. get the job done and return to my life.
-babies explore, but do not keep eyes on mom
-indifferent to mom's comings and goings
-when distressed, strangers are as good as mom at comforting them
clings to caregiver, then resists by fighting against the closeness
-10% of american infants
-moms are inept at reading baby, often offering care instead of cuddling, changes instead of food
-babies hesitate to explore, need encouragement from mom
at separation, babies become extremely distressed (following mom, clawing at the door, etc.)
-at reunion, baby asks to be picked up, but will not be comforted. May hit mom as they push away from her.
shows insecurity by being disorganized, disoriented
-5% of american infants
-moms are unpredictable, may be abusive
-babies do not explore but sit quietly by mom. They watch Mom closely
-at separation: freezing behavior, silent tears
-at reunion: may cringe if mother approaches, but if she sits quietly, baby will approach and make contact
-behavior that intentionally presents a false impression to others. knowingly inauthentic.
-a consequence of adolescents' recognition that they are not always consistent in their personality deals with their ability to distinguish between their true and false selves.
-most likely to behave inauthentically in romantic and dating situations and with classmates, and they are least likely to put on a false front with close friends.
-adolescents who report less emotional support from parents and peers, who have low self-esteem, and who are relatively more depressed and hopeless than their peers are more likely to engage in this behavior.
refers to the development of independent decision-making abilities and following through on them (acting independently)
emotional independence in relationships with others, especially parents (feeling independently)
-establishment of more adult like and less childish relationships with family members and peers
the development of independent values, opinions, and beliefs (thinking independently) aka cognitive
semi-restrictive sexual socialization
Sexual activities among adolescents frowned upon but prohibitions not consistently enforced.
-premarital promiscuity is common
-parents don't object as long as love affairs are kept secret
-pregnancy is objectionable
-socialization is typical of the USA and most of Western Societies
permissive sexual socialization
type of socialization with highly continuous transition
-seeking privacy to engage in sex play is approved by parents
-normal for children to openly masturbate and imitate adult intercourse
restrictive sexual socialization
type of socialization with discontinuous transition
-pressure on youngsters to refrain from sexual activity until they have undergone a formal rite of passage or have married
-sometimes, the sexes are separated throughout childhood and adolescence
the ability to be excellent in the eyes of self and others based on one's:
- concerns the development of motives, capabilities, interests, and behavior that have to do with performance in evaluative situations.
-the study of ___ during adolescence has focused on young people's performance in educational settings and on their hopes and plans for future scholastic and occupational careers.
-_____ motivation is about overcoming difficulties
-a lifelong concern
-during adolescence, this merits special attention:
1. time of preparation for adult work roles
2. teens evaluate differences in school performance in regard to future success
-educational decisions are numerous and consequences of decisions are serious
fear of failure
-often manifested by feelings of anxiety
-interferes with successful performance
-even students who are determined to succeed are sometimes afraid of failing that their strong achievement motivation is undermined.
the belief that failure is inevitable. these students are led to believe that their efforts do not make a difference.
-as a result of this, some students try less hard than their peers, and they do not do as well as they might.
-lack of persistence
-effort means a lack of ability
-attributions for failure to lack of ability
-expectations of failure
social control theory of delinquency
a theory of delinquency that links deviance with the absence of bonds to society's main institutions.
-individuals who do not have strong bonds to society's institutions-such as the family, school, or workplace-will be likely to behave unconventionally in a variety of ways.
-the clustering of different problem behaviors may stem not from a problem "in" the person, but from an underlying weakness in the individual's attachment to society.
-this theory helps to explain why behavior problems are not just clustered together but are far more prevalent among poor, inner-city, minority youngsters.
the way adolescents feel about themselves depending on specific events of that day, based on: how others react to them and what others have to say to or about them.
-Example: "i feel bad, i was mean to my friend".
-influenced by events and/or interactions
-more volatile in Early Adolescence
-High volatility is associated with anxiety, irritability and bodily discomfort (psychosomatic disorders)
how one feels about oneself based on competence, agency, and self-control.
-relatively stable, moment to moment, day to day
-the way that adolescents typically feel about themselves overall, based on: social class, sex, birth order, academic ability, etc...
-Example: "i am a good person".
Adolescents' feelings about themselves can fluctuate day by day.
an internal working model of attachment
belief that the initial attachment relationship forms the basis for a more general model of interpersonal relationships employed throughout life.
-this determines whether individuals feel trusting or apprehensive in relationships with others and whether they see themselves as worthy of others' affection.
-a set of beliefs and expectations people draw on it forming close relationships with others--whether they go into relationships expecting acceptance or anticipating rejection.
a measure of achievement based on an individual's grades in school.
-how many years of school an adolescent completes is likely to be influenced by his or her family background and living circumstances, as well as by this.
The number of years of schooling completed by an individual.
-ex: two adolescents may have similar grade point averages, but if one comes from a poor family and cannot afford to go to college, the two will have different levels of this.
-has important implications for subsequent earnings
achievement that is measured by standardized tests of scholastic ability or knowledge
this is about overcoming difficulties
-if you want to increase motivation, you must provide the learner with both success and failure experience
-when they fail, train them to attribute their failures to poor efforts not poor ability. This is called attribution retraining.
a goal in the learning setting. they focus on the evaluation an the need to document one's competence
-desire to avoid negative evaluations
-leads to helpless behavior
-focus on the task at hand and learning skills
-leads to mastery oriented behavior
students who believe that intelligence is malleable, experience and knowledge increases intelligence.
-leads to mastery oriented behavior.
-more likely to be intrinsically motivated: satisfaction comes from mastering the material, not simply gaining a good evaluation.
-exert extra effort and seek out challenges, because they are motivated by learning rather than by performing
-these theorists, especially those with low confidence, did better in middle school than would have been predicted by grades in 6th grade (over-achievers)
students who believe that intelligence is fixed.
-oriented toward their performance and to be greatly affected by their degree of confidence
-if confident in abilities, tend to work hard and to seek out challenges.
-if insecure about abilities, tend to give up easily and feel helpless
-these theorists, especially those with low confidence, felt very anxious in school
-these theorists, especially those with high confidence, did more poorly in middle school than would have been predicted by grades in 6th grade (under-achievers)
motivation to succeed based on the rewards one will receive for successful performance
-behaviorism--pulls behavior. behave in order to...
-strive to achieve because of the rewards for performing well or the punishments for performing poorly
motivation to succeed based on the pleasure one will experience from mastering a task
-enjoyment, pleasure, and interest pushes behavior from within
-behavior that is its own reward
-depends on certain psychological factors:
1. beliefs and goals
3. utility value
4. prerequisite knowledge
process that involves a gradual, progressive sharpening of the young person's sense of self as autonomous, competent, and separate from her or his parents
-has a lot to do with development of a sense of identity because it involves changes in how adolescents come to see and feel about themselves
-the progressive sharpening of an individual's sense of being an autonomous, independent person
-What triggers this?
1. changes in teen's appearance provoke changes in how teen views self and how parents view teen. This alters parent-adolescent interactions
2. social-cognitive development stimulates movement toward
old targets: intimacy with parents and intimacy with peers of the same sex.
new targets that are added: intimacy with peers and intimacy with peers of the opposite sex
-different types of intimate relationships with parents and peers
-parent-adolescent relationships: imbalance of power, teens receive advice
-adolescent-peer relationships: mutual, balanced, equal exchanges
What are the typical targets of adolescent intimacy?
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT is a powerful predictor of adult occupational success and earnings
What is the best predictor of occupational success?
-adolescents are more likely than children to like traits and attributes that describe themselves to specific situations, rather than using them as global characterizations.
-child: "I am nice"
-adolescent: "I am nice if I am in a good mood"
-adolescents' realization that their personality is expressed in different ways in different situations is one ex. of increased differentiation between children and adolescents
How do adolescents differ from children in their self descriptions?
-not until adolescence do individuals begin to evaluate their occupational choices in light of their talkers, abilities, opportunities, and the performance of those around them.
What happens to student motivation and school performance when they enter into secondary school?
before age 16 considered early onset.
-experimentation with drugs and alcohol
-a low level of religious involvement
-tolerance of deviant behavior
-a lower interest in academic achievement
-higher orientation toward independence
What problems are associated with early onset of sexual intercourse? What is considered early onset?
US 52.1%, highest by a lot
How does the United States compare to other industrialized countries regarding adolescent sexual behavior and the rate of adolescent pregnancy?
it is fostered by close, not distant, family relationships.
-develops best under conditions that encourage both individuation and emotional closeness
What can parents do to encourage emotional autonomy?
-when they dislike using condoms
-when they are risk takers
-when friends are actively engaged in risky sex
Why don't young people use contraception regularly?
1. passion: romance, attraction, sexual consummation
2. commitment: the decision to love another and to maintain that love by investing emotional and often financial resources
3. intimacy: feelings of closeness, connectedness, the bond between self and other, dependency, mutual understanding, mutual happiness.
-all three aspects in balance
-it is the romantic ideal
-it takes a lot of work and regular attention to each aspect
-it is difficult but not impossible
-it helps to be creative
What are the three major components to a consummate love relationship according to Sternberg?
-begins in early childhood
-during early adolescence includes erotic fantasy and masturbation
-boys do more masturbation than do girls
-running the bases
What is the typical sequence in the emergence of sexual behavior among adolescents?
-moms better at sex ed
-moms more successful with daughters than with sons, but are still better with sons than fathers
Which parent is going to be most effective in slowing an adolescent's involvement in sexual activities?
during late adolescence
When is an adolescent MOST likely to question his or her religious beliefs?
-typical boy's first sexual experience is masturbation in early adolescence
-masturbation far less prevalent among girls and boys
-girl will experience sex for the first time with another person
-at the time of first intercourse, boys keep matters of sex and intimacy separate.
-for girls, unlike boys, the development of sexuality involves the integration of sexual activity into an already existing capacity for intimacy and emotional involvement.
Compare and contrast boys' and girls' first sexual experiences
Study the Graph on page 373
Study the statistics on slide 13 of Sexuality lecture.
Study slide 4 of the Sexuality lecture. Compare to the textbook on the statistics regarding marriage
first develops prior to adolescence (preadolescence) and in the context of same-sex, not other-sex, relationships
According to Sullivan, where does the capacity for intimacy first develop?
some evidence suggests that minor problems in self-imagemay arise for a brief period during early adolescence. necessary to distinguish among three aspects of adolescents' self-image: 1. self-esteem (how positively or negatively they feel about themselves.) 2. self-consciousness (how much they worry about their self-image) 3. self-image ability (how much their self-image changes from day to day)
What is true about young adolescents' self-esteem, self-consciousness, and self-image, based on the research findings of Simmons and her colleagues, as discussed in the Identity chapter.
Sullivan: development of intimacy leads to development of a coherent sense of self in late adolescence
Erikson: one must have a clear sense of who one is in order to avoid becoming lost in a relationship with someone else
-Erikson viewed adolescence as a time for experimentation with different identities, Sullivan saw adolescence as a time of experimentation with different types of relationships
Compare and contrast the positions of Erikson and Sullivan regarding intimacy.
What are the important dimensions of intimate relationships and when does each emerge?
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