Augustus was the most powerful ruler of the mightiest empire of the ancient world. Yet, amid the pomp of Rome, he lived a simple and frugal life. His home was modest by Roman standards. His favorite meal was the usual food of a common laborer.
Augustus was also a very religious and family-oriented man. He held to a strict moral code. He had his only child, Julia, exiled from Rome for not being faithful in her marriage
Julius Caesar's death
In 44 B.C., on March 15, Caesar prepared to go to speak to the Senate, unaware that important senators plotted his death.
When Caesar arrived at the Senate chamber, he sat in his chair. Soon the plotters encircled him, took knives hidden in their togas, and stabbed him 23 times. They were led by Gaius Cassius and Caesar's friend Marcus Brutus. Caesar's last words were "You, too, Brutus?"
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
attempted to help Rome's poor and proposed such reforms as limiting the size of estates and giving land to the poor.
The brothers made enemies of numerous senators, who felt threatened by their ideas. Both met violent deaths
When he was only a boy of nine, his father, Hamilcar Barca, a general in Carthage's army, made him swear that he would always hate Rome and seek to destroy it.
After his defeat at the battle of Zama and Carthage's loss in the Second Punic War, he took refuge among Rome's enemies. He fought against Roman forces as an ally of the kings of Syria and Bithynia. When Roman agents came for him in Bithynia on the Black Sea in Anatolia in 183 B.C., he committed suicide rather than submit to Rome.
Thumbs up or thumbs down—that is how a match often ended for a gladiator When one of the combatants fell, the organizer of the games usually determined his fate. A thumbs up sign from him meant that the fighter would live. Thumbs down meant his death.
The crowd usually played a key role in these life-and-death decisions. If the masses liked the fallen gladiator, he most likely would live to fight another day. If not, he was doomed.
Pompeii after Vesuvius
• Of the 10,000 to 20,000 people who lived in there, only 2,000 bodies have been uncovered.
•About three-fourths of the city has been excavated.
The Jewish Diaspora
Centuries of Jewish exile followed the destruction of their temple and the fall of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. This period is called the Diaspora, from the Greek word for "dispersal." Jews fled to many parts of the world, including Europe.
In the 1100s, many European Jews were expelled from their homes. Some moved to Turkey, Palestine, and Syria. Others went to Poland and neighboring areas.
The statelessness of the Jews did not end until the creation of Israel in 1948.
Romulus and Remus
two twins who according to legend founded the city of Rome in 753 BC. According to legend, they were twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin princess. The twins were abandoned on the Tiber River as infants and raised by a she-wolf. The twins then decided to build a city near the spot.
Rome's Geography Rome
was built on seven rolling hills at a curve on the Tiber River, near the center of the Italian peninsula. It was midway between the Alps and Italy's southern tip. Rome also was near the midpoint of the Mediterranean Sea.
The First Romans
Three groups inhabited the region and eventually battled for control. They were the Latins, the Greeks, and the Etruscans.
The Latins built the original settlement at Rome, a cluster of wooden huts atop one of its seven hills.
A group of ten officials began writing down Rome's laws. The laws were carved tablets and hung in the Forum. They became the basis for later Roman law and established the idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law.
the philosophy of the Greek teacher Zeno, was especially influential and encouraged virtue, duty, moderation, and endurance.
How did Rome treat different sections of its conquered territories?
Gave them all rights except for voting rights
How did the apostle Paul encourage the spread of Christianity?
Travel and taught and he wrote influential letters, called Epistles, to groups of believers. In his teaching, he stressed that Jesus was the son of God who died for people's sins. He also declared that Christianity should welcome all converts, Jew or Gentile (non-Jew).
Why did the Roman Empire persecute Christians?
they refused to worship Roman gods. This refusal was seen as opposition to Roman rule. Some Roman rulers also used Christians as scapegoats for political and economic troubles.t.
What was the most significant reform the emperor Diocletian made?
he divided the empire into the Greek- speaking East (Greece, Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt) and the Latin-speaking West (Italy, Gaul, Britain, and Spain)
Why did the Western Roman Empire fall?
social disorder; inflation; invasions; disloyalty to Rome; lack of patriotism; population decrease; attacks from the huns
Why did so much Roman culture have a Greek flavor?
conquered greece and had a great respect for Greek philosophy, architecture, and literature
What aspects of Roman Culture influenced future civilizations?
Architecture, government, language, laws, literature, philosophy
What do you think of Diocletian's decision to divide the empire in two parts? Was it wise?
Yes. The empire had grown too large and too complex for one ruler.
What were Diocletian's motives?
While Diocletian shared authority, he kept overall control. He took the eastern half for himself and appointed a co-ruler for the West. His half of the empire, the East, included most of the empire's great cities and trade centers and was far wealthier than the West.
What were the results of Diocletian's decision?
plans for orderly succession failed. Civil war broke out immediately.
This early Church leader did not live to see the empire's end, but he vividly describes his feelings after a major event in Rome's decline—the attack and plunder of the city by Visigoths in 410.
LIVY, The Early History of Rome
The placement of Rome was perfect because of the different geographical factors around.
TIBERIUS GRACCHUS quoted in Plutarch, The Lives of Noble Greeks and Romans
After warriors return from battle, they have nothing left of their former lives, so are forced to live on the streets.
AUGUSTINE, The City of God
a quote by St. Augustine stating that the people who live by man's standards will go to hell but the people who live by God's will live forever with God.
Torquatus Silanus was able to obtain followers by bribing them with gifts. When Nero found out, he captured all of Silanus' friends, so that when Torquatus saw, he slit his wrists to kill himself. When asked by the public, Nero said that he would have shown Torquatus to be innocent out of merciful feelings, as a dictator would do to please his people.