Social and personality development chp 9-11
Terms in this set (62)
any action that delivers noxious stimuli to another organism
any action intended to harm or injure another living being, who is motivated to avoid such treatment
Social Judgment Perspective
highlights that whether something is aggressive or not will depend on variety of social, personal, and situational factors
Freud's name for inborn, self destructive
instincts, which were
said to characterize all human
aggressive acts for which the perpetrator's major goal is to harm or injure a victim
aggressive acts for which the perpetrator's major goal is to gain access to objects, space, or
Lorenz's Ethological Theory of Aggression
Lorenz views aggression as a hydraulic system
that generates its own energy, aggressive urges continue to build until
relieved by an appropriate releasing stimulus.
Humans lack aggressive inhibitions
Humans and animals have a basic fighting (aggressive) instinct that is directed against members of the
same species. All instincts, including aggression,
serve a basic evolutionary purpose: to ensure the survival of the individual and the species.
Frustration/aggression hypothesis (Dollard)
early learning theory of aggression,
holding that frustration triggers
aggression and that all aggressive
acts can be traced to frustrations.
Berkowitz's Revised Frustration/Aggression Hypothesis
aggression will not occur without an "aggressive
cue" that evokes aggressive responses from a person who is primed to make them"
frustration merely makes us angry and creates only a "readiness for aggressive acts."
events such as being provoked, attacked, or previously acquired aggressive habits, may heighten a person's readiness to aggress.
an extremely angry person
may behave aggressively, regardless of whether aggressive
cues are present.
aggressive behavior as stemming from
a combination of internal forces (anger, aggressive habits)
and external stimuli (aggressive cues).
Banduras social learning theory
Bandura proceeds a step further by
seeking to explain how aggressive behaviors are acquired and maintained
observational learning—a cognitive process whereby children
attend to and retain in memory the aggressive responses they see others commit
Direct experience: a child who is reinforced for aggressive behavior will be more likely to resort to aggression in the future.
How is agression maintained? (Bandura social learning theory)
• If they are frequently instrumental in procuring benefits for the aggressor or otherwise satisfying his or her objectives.
• Aggressive children have more positive expectancies about the outcomes of aggression. Value outcomes of aggression and become accustomed to point is self rewarding.
proactive aggressors (dodge's social information processing theory)
highly aggressive children who find
aggressive acts easy to perform and
who rely heavily on aggression as a
means of solving social problems or
achieving other personal objectives
reactive aggressors(dodge's social information processing theory)
children who display high levels
of hostile, retaliatory aggression
because they overattribute hostile
intents to others and can't control
their anger long enough to seek
nonaggressive solutions to social
hostile attributional bias(dodge's social information processing theory)
tendency to view harm done
under ambiguous circumstances
as having stemmed from a hostile
intent on the part of the harm-doer;
characterizes reactive aggressors.
Proposes child's response depends on six (dodge's social information processing theory) cognitive steps
1. Encode social cues
2. Interpret social cues - Hostile attribution bias influences this step in reactive aggressors.
3. Formulate social goals
4. Generate problem solving strategies
5. Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies - select a response
6. Enact response
All 3 aggression theories
the social information processing
viewpoint (dodge) illustrates that children with
different mental states and social information-processing biases may interpret and respond
to provocations and other harm-doing in very different ways(dodge). In other words, it accounts
for both Berkowitz's "angry" aggression and the cool, calculating instrumental aggression
that Bandura emphasizes.
social-cognitive model is most useful in helping to
understand why children and adolescents might behave aggressively in particular social
situations rather than informing us about why children become aggressive (or nonaggressive)
in the first place and how they acquire the information-processing biases that they
come to display.
often hangout with other aggressive peers that encourage each other, may be seen as cool or popular as a result for being able to convince victims to comply (habitual bullies are disliked), come from environments where aggression paid off.
tend to be socially withdrawn, sedentary, or overall reluctant to fight, will appeal to adults.
provocative victims (of aggression)
restless, hot-tempered, and
oppositional children who are
victimized because they are disliked
and often irritate their peers
a small subset of children who are
often bullied and who, in turn, often
bully their more positive peers
growth curve of children who are highly aggressive early in life and who display the same high (or escalating) levels of aggression throughout childhood and adolescence.
growth curve of children who are highly aggressive early in life but gradually become less aggressive throughout childhood and adolescence
growth curve of individuals who become more aggressive for a limited time (during adolescence or young adulthood) after having been relatively nonaggressive
Moderate desister trajectory
growth curve of children who are moderately aggressive early in life but who gradually become less aggressive throughout childhood
No problem trajectory
growth curve of children who are low in aggression throughout adolescence
AGGRESSION SEX DIFFERENCES
Males tend to be more aggressive than females in displays of "overtly" (physically and verbally) aggression
Both biology and social environmental factors play a role
Boys are more active due to hormones, leads to rough play from caregivers and models and reinforces aggressive behavior or lead them to be impatient which causes boys to become quicker to anger.
The Social-Learning Viewpoint
critical of the hormonal argument
for sex differences in aggression
very young boys are not always more
aggressive than girls Not until age 17 to
18 months are sex differences in aggression reliable and this is
clearly enough time for social influences to have steered boys and girls in different directions
The Interactive (or Biosocial) Viewpoint
parents' greater impatience
or irritability with sons than with daughters could also push boys in the direction of becoming
quicker to anger and/or somewhat more hostile or resentful toward other people it seems as if a child's biological
predispositions are likely to affect the behavior of caregivers and other close companions,
which in turn will elicit certain reactions from the child and influence the activities and
interests that the child is likely to display.
females are more ----relational aggression
acts such as snubbing, exclusion,
withdrawing acceptance, or
spreading rumors that are aimed
at damaging an adversary's selfesteem,
friendships, or social status.
males are more overtly aggressive
Sub-cultural variations aggression
• Individuals from low SES tend to be at a higher risk for aggressive and delinquent behavior, Low SES parents tend to rely on harsh punishment and discipline.
• Those with low SES tend to be associated with higher crime rates, less community service, and less access to productive activities to participate in.
• Development of hostile attribution bias can lead to peer rejection and poor academics, aggressive children tend to be grouped together.
• Cultures have different views and tolerance of aggressive behaviors.
Methods of controlling aggression and antisocial conduct
a strategy for reducing aggression
by encouraging children to vent
their anger or frustrations on
• Creating nonaggressive environments: create environments that reduce likelihood for conflict, make sure there are enough toys so that sharing is not a problem, avoid aggressive toys.
• Eliminating the payoffs for aggression: Eliminate the reinforcing/positive consequences for aggressive behavior
• Incompatible response technique: ignore all but most serious aggressive antics while reinforcing positive nonaggressive solutions
• Time-out technique: used when child has engaged in serious acts, removes the offer from the situation and prevents aggressive acts from being reinforced.
• Social-cognitive interventions: focused on getting children to regulate their anger and emotions, develop greater empathy to combat hostile attribution bias.
actions, such as sharing, helping,
or comforting, that are intended to
benefit other people.
• Behavioral definition: Any behavior that benefits another person, no distinction between altruism and prosocial behavior.
• Motivational/intentional definition: Behavior whose primary aim is to benefit another person
altruistic individuals would be most likely to survive and to pass along
"altruistic genes" to their offspring
capacity for empathy—our tendency to become
aroused by and vicariously experience the emotions of others—is the biological substrate
for altruistic concern.
results of several twin studies suggest
that genes, shared environments, and nonshared environments all contribute to empathic
responding and prosocial behavior for preschool and young elementary school children,
and that the contributions of genes and nonshared environmental influences become larger
with the passage of time.
• Biological and evolutionary theories (Altruism)
: Argues that capacity for altruism is an instinctive aspect of human nature as it is evolutionarily adaptive. Highlights empathy as underlying mechanism, altruism is not automatic.
• Twin studies show support, environment is important too. Could be difference in temperament.
• Psychoanalytic (Altruism)
prosocial norms and principles are internalized from our parents as part of our superego during the oedipal complex/phallic phase.
norm of social responsibility
the principle that we should help
others who are in some way
dependent on us for assistance.
Social learning theory (Altruism)
all prosocial acts, even those that prove
extremely costly to the benefactor, are prompted by some form of subtle reward or selfgain.
a person who empathizes with a suffering
victim and vicariously experiences the victim's distress may have learned from past experience
that if she helps or comforts the victim, she will not only relieve the victim's pain and
suffering but her own distress as well
reinforcing prosocial acts
acts of kindness become self-reinforcing. And because children receive periodic praise or
recognition for their benevolence, it is not hard to imagine how prosocial acts might retain
their "satisfying" qualities over time and become quite resistant to extinction.
children learn through observation
they witness the charitable acts of altruistic models often become more prosocially inclined,
even when the models incur personal costs and receive no tangible benefits for their kindly
As children develop intellectually, they will
acquire important cognitive skills that will affect both their reasoning about prosocial issues
and their motivation to act in the interests of others
• The capacity to distinguish right from wrong, act on this distinction, and experience pride in virtuous conduct and guilt/shame over violation of one's standard.
components of morality
• Moral affect: emotional component of morality including feelings such as empathy guilt shame and pride in ethical conduct
• Moral reasoning: the cognitive component of morality; the thinking that people display when deciding whether various acts are right or wrong
• Moral behavior: the behavioral component of
morality; actions that are consistent
with one's moral standards in
situations in which one is tempted
to violate them.
the process of adopting the
attributes or standards of other
people—taking these standards as
Freud's theory of moral
occurs during the
phallic period (ages 3 to 6) when
children internalize the moral
standards of the same-sex parent
as they resolve their Oedipus or
in Piaget's theory, the first five years
of life, when children have little
respect for or awareness of socially
Piaget's first stage of moral
development, in which children
view the rules of authority figures as
sacred and unalterable.
the notion that unacceptable
conduct will invariably be punished
and that justice is ever-present in
Piaget's second stage of moral
development, in which children
realize that rules are arbitrary
agreements that can be challenged
and changed with the consent of
the people they govern.
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
• With regards to moral dilemmas, what was kohlberg interested in?He was interested in the underlying rationale or thought structures that the individual used to justify his decision.
• What do kohlberg's stages really reflect? each stage represents a particular perspective or method of thinking about moral dilemmas rather than a particular type of moral decision.
• Cultural biased: cross cultural studies have found that postconventional does not exist in some societies, specifically those that more collectivist and prioritize social harmony. ignored moral development in collectivistic societies, such as india, china, and japan. Individuals in this culture did not reach the final stage in Kohlberg's theory because they value group ideologies more than personal.
• Kohlberg underestimated young children
• Does not address moral effects or behaviors: paints an incomplete view, research has found only moderate relationships between reasoning and behavior.
Critics have also charged that Kohlberg's theory, which was developed from
responses provided by male participants to dilemmas involving male characters, does not
adequately represent female moral reasoning
doctrine of specificity
a viewpoint shared by many sociallearning
theorists that holds that
moral affect, moral reasoning, and
moral behavior may depend on the
situation one faces as much as or
more than on an internalized set of
• How do children learn to resist temptations?
• Reinforcement: Warm accepting parents with reasonable standards who praise good behavior display internalized conscience. Unable to determine when child resisted temptation
• Punishment: Firm and warm punishment administered immediately after is effective in inhibiting undesirable conduct. More if followed by cognitive rationale explanation which focuses child's guilt on conduct.
• What are cognitive rationales and how do cognitive rationales impact learning?
• They specify why a punished act was wrong and why the transgressor should feel guilty, shameful, or otherwise less than virtuous were they to repeat it. Using rationales should feel uneasy before committing forbidden act and make internal attribution
Parke's most important discovery was that all forms of punishment became more effective
if accompanied by a cognitive rationale that provides the transgressor with reasons for
inhibiting a forbidden act.
• Who raises children who are morally mature
• Love withdrawal: a form of discipline in which an adult withholds attention, affection, or approval in order to modify or control a child's behavior
• Power assertion: a form of discipline in which an adult relies on his or her superior power (spanking) to modify or control a childs behaviors
• Induction explaining: a non punitive form of discipline in which an adult explains why a child's behavior is wrong and should be changed by emphasizing its effect on others
INDUCTION = BEST
POWER ASSERTION = WORST
• neither love withdrawal nor power assertion were particularly effective at promoting moral maturity
• induction seemed to foster the development of all three aspects of morality.
• Inductive: more mature children, provides cognitive standards.
• Power assertion: moral immaturity, noncompliance, defiance, lack of concern for others
• What is the purpose of the family?
• What function does socialization serve?
A)care for and socialize their young
• regulate and control children's behaviors and uncontrollable impulses
• promote personal growth
• perpetuate the social order
The family as a social system
reciprocal relationships and alliances that are constantly evolving and are greatly affected by
community and cultural influences
• Direct influences: influence in which any pair of family members affects and is affected by each other's behavior
• Indirect effects: interaction between any two family member are likely to be influenced by attitudes and behaviors of a third family member. (requires family to be composed of three or more individuals)
Family as developing systems
• Every person and every relationship within the family affects every other person in direct and indirect ways
• Each family member is developing, planned and unplanned changes are a critical aspect of the system
Families are embedded systems
• Families are embedded in a larger cultural and subcultural context
• Ext. Economic hardship exerts a strong hardship, this hardship is buffered if the family is closely tied with local community.
Changing family systems in a changing world
More single adults
More women are employed
More single parent families
More children in poverty
More multigenerational families
• Parenting socialization during childhood and adolescence
Jay Belsky (1981) has argued that parental warmth/sensitivity "is the
most influential dimension of [parenting] in infancy. It not only fosters healthy psychological
functioning during this developmental epoch, but also . . . lays the foundation on
which future experience will build"
According to Erik Erikson (1963), this is
the period(2 YRS OLD) when socialization begins in earnest. Parents must now manage the child's budding
autonomy in the hope of instilling a sense of social propriety and self-control, while taking
care not to undermine his or her curiosity, initiative, and feelings of personal competence
Two major dimensions of parenting
• Amount of support and affection that a parent displays
• Accepting and warm parents often smile at, praise, and encourage
• Less acceptive/unresponsive parents criticize, belittle, punish, and ignore.
• Amount of regulation or supervision parents undertake with their children
• controlling demanding parents place limits on children's freedom of expression
• less controlling demanding parents make fewer demands and allow considerable freedom.
four parenting patterns
• Very restrictive pattern
• Expect strict obedience with little explanation as to why it is necessary
• Often rely on punitive, forceful tactics (power assertion or love withdrawal)
• children Tend to be moody and seemingly unhappy as well as uneasily annoyed, unfriendly, and relatively aimless.
• Parents make reasonable demands and provide rationale for complying
• Much more accepting and responsive of children's point of view
• Exercise control in a rational and democratic.
• children Tend to be positively oriented, socially responsible, self-reliant, achievement oriented, and cooperative.
• Accepting but lax parents with relatively little to no demands. Do not closely monitor their children's activity or exert control
• children Tend to be impulsive, aggressive, and tend to be bossy and self-centered while lacking self-control and motivation to achieve.
• Parents who have either rejected or become overwhelmed
• children Perform poorly in class, become hostile, selfish, and rebellious.
• Explaining the effectiveness of authoritative parenting
Parents by being warm/accepting communicating a sense of caring concern, motivates children to comply/
Exert control in a rational way, carefully explain their point of view while considering the child's, elicit a committed compliance rather than defiance
tailor their their demands to their child's ability and thus support their autonomy .
• Behavioral control versus psychological control
Behavioral control: regulation of child's conduct through firm and reasonable discipline as well as monitoring of his/her activities
Psychological control: attempts of influence a child's conduct via psychological means such as ignoring, discounting, or belittling a child's feelings, withholding affection, or inducing shame and guilt.
• Social class and ethnic variations in child rearing
• Asian and asian american: emphasizes strictness and rigidly controls Children who adopt these values see strict control as parental concern.
• Urban african american: inclined to demand strict obedience and use coercive forms of discipline to ensure that they get it. Can be adaptive in dangerous neighborhoods, children view it as sign of caring and concern..
• The influence of siblings and sibling relationships
How can the changes be mitigated? Reduced?
Mother typically devote less warm and playful attention to older child, which will in turn feel neglected and become difficult and less secure. Sibling rivalries ensue as a result.
• Secure attachment with parents make adjustment easier, should provide love/attention while maintaining routines and encouraging firstborn to become aware of the child's needs.
• Older siblings adjust quickly.
• Siblings get along better if parents do and if parents provide equal treatment
• Parental monitoring: parents serve as mediators as opposed to judges
• Sibling relationships over the course of childhood
What may lead to positive (or negative) sibling relations?
• Positive: parents functioning as mediator, maintain regular routines with first born, involve first born with responsibilities of the second
• Negative: conflict, parentings functioning as judge
• Characteristics of only children 392
High self esteem and achievement motivation, more obedient and slightly more intellectually competent than children with siblingslikely to establish good relationships
Advantages that siblings gain, only children make up through friendships and peer alliances.
Adopted families 393
• adoptive children develop secure emotional attachments to unrelated adoptees. Caregiver sensitivity is strong predictor of attachment
• some adoptive children experience learning difficulties, potentially as a result of mistreatment prior to adoption or mismatch between children's abilities and parents expectations
• Discovering biological parents servers to strengthen relationships between child and non-biological parents, see biological simply as birth giver.
Donor insemination families
• DI children at age 12 showed no more behavioral problems and were as well adjusted on measures of emotional development, scholastic progress, and peer relations as their adoptive or naturally conceived peers.
• Mothers were found to be more sensitive to their children's needs.
• Fathers were less involved in disciplining their children, were no less involved in other aspects.
Gay and lesbian families
What is the biggest contributor to a child's development during a divorce
What is the general consensus on divorces
• Children do better in a single family household in a family household that is in perpetual conflict
• Children that are in single parent households but their parents are still fighting do just as poorly as those in a together "conflict" households