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158 terms

CNS Final (Old Tests)

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Microglial
Which cell is phagocytic?
Sagittal
Divides the body into left and right halves
Protein
Found in low concentrations in the CNS
Arcuate fibers
Connects Weinecki's to Brocca's
Metencephalon
Where did cerebellum develop from?
Mesencephalon
Which is not in the forebrain?
Sensory neurons
Which are derived from neural crest cells?
Limbic
Which lobe deals with emotions?
150 ml
How much CSF in a normal cross section?
Anterior cerebral artery
Which artery crosses corpus callosum?
Induction of ectoderm
What is the importance of the notochord?
Axodendritic
Most common synapse
Pyramid
What is gray matter in the midbrain?
Interventricular septum
What connects the third and lateral ventricles?
Midbrain/Mesencephalon
Cerebral aquaduct?
Dorsal in the spinal cord and lateral in the brain stem
Which are sensory?
Occipital lobe
Vision in the
Great cerebral vein of Galen
Internal structures of the brain drained by
Piamater
Adjacent to the midbrain is the
Internal Jugular
What drains the cranium?
Ependymal cells
What makes the CSF?
Tract
What is a bundle of nerve fibers in the CNS?
Posterior cerebral artery
What artery supplies the visual cortex?
Oligodendrocyte
Which microglial cell myelinates the CNS?
Schwann cell
Which microglial cell myelinates the PNS?
Sensory neurons
Which are neural crest cells?
Ependymal cells
What lines the ventricles
Comissural
What kind of fiber is the corpus callosum?
Diencephalon
Where is the cerebellum?
Pia mater
During a lumbar puncture, what is not punctured?
Parietal
What lobe is somatosensory?
Subarachnoid space
Where is CSF located?
Nucleus
What is gray matter of midbrain?
Telencephalon
What is most rostral part of CNS?
3rd week
Which week does nervous system development start in embryo?
Cerebrum
Which develops from the telencephalon?
Pseudounipolar
What cell type is in the DRG?
Broca's Area
What is the area for speech?
2nd order neurons
Sensory info arriving at one side of the body or head typically reaches the cerebral cortex on the other side. The axons that cross the midline to accomplish this are
Spinothalamic
Which pathway carries pain sensation to the cerebrum?
Cuneate nucleus
63 y/o man has loss of discriminative touch, vibratory sense, and proprioception in right arm. Where are the cell bodies located for the 2nd order neurons in the pathway located?
C7
Dermatome of upper arm
Free nerve ending
This is a type of nociceptor
Muscle spindle
Stimulus of a stretch receptor
Mechanreceptor
Follicular receptor is a
Merkel's
Which is not encapsulated?
Pacinian
Which is for vibration?
Pinothalamic
Pain sensation to the cerebellum
Right cerebellum
Left arm/leg weakness
Pyramid/Lateral corticospinal
what does not contain corticobulbar fibers?
Myotatic
Patellar reflex is
Withdrawel reflex
Fibers cross =
Decrease over time
Aging motor units
2
How many neurons involved in a reflex?
Cuneate tract
Upper arm =
Gamme
Muscle contraction
Golgi tendon organ
This prevents excessive contraction
Interoreceptors
These receptors are within the body
Lateral vestibular nucleus
The vestibulospinal tract nucleus is located here
Tegmentum of pons, medulla, and midbrain
Reticular formation is in the
Gray matter of spinal cord
Alpha motor neurons are where?
Gracile
Proprioceptive sensation of lower limb is from where?
Tectospinal tract
Tract that turns your head in response to a stimulus
Withdrawal
Which reflex requires synapses over several spinal segments?
Dermatome
Area of skin innervated by a single nerve and its receptors is called a
Internal arcuate fibers
What are the crossing fibers of the gracile nucleus called?
Dorsal thoracic
Posterior spinocerebellar tract originates from which nucleus?
In Dorsal root ganglion
Gracile nucleus/fasciculus is located where?
Reticular activating system
Level of awareness
Cilliary
What is involved in pupillary light reflex?
Semicircular canals
Cold/warm water in the ear
I, VII, X
Nerves involved in Special Visceral Afferent
Trigeminal and facial
Two nerves involved in corneal reflex
Mandibular
Branch of trigeminal nerve that is motor
Rods
Photoreceptor example
Cones
These are concentrated in the fovea
They go to the anterior 1/3 of tongue (they don't really)
Which is not true of nerves of the solitary tract?
GSE
What do these things have in common?
Lateral rectus
What does CN VI control?
Cristae
What is sensory organ for dynamic equilibrium?
Motor
Hypoglossal nerve is
Utricle and Saccule
If you run into a tree
Vagus
What nerve does taste on epiglottis?
CN III (Oculomotor)
Which nerve has parasympathetic component?
Right oculomotor
Shine light -> Right eye no contraction left eye contraction, what nerve is damaged?
GVE
What functional component is parasympathetic?
Trigeminal
Which nerve innervates the muscles of mastication?
Visual Cortex
Where do ganglia cells not terminate?
Right abducens, left oculomotor
When looking at something on the right
Oculomotor nucleus
Ascending MLF ends in
Nucleus ambiguus
Pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles innervated by muscle fibers from
Afferent limb of reflexes/Modulates cardiac and respiratory function
What does the solitary tract convey?
Solitary tract/nucleus
If there is a lesion here you can't taste
Trigeminal and Facial nerves
What innervates the tensor timpani and stapes?
Trapezoid body
Primary decussation of auditory?
Transverse temporal
Auditory cortex
7
Number of functional components of brainstem?
Many crossovers = Exact hearing
Which is true (crossovers and hearing)
Visual cortex
What is not a direct target of axon cells?
CN IV
Of nerves 4, 7, 8, and 10, which has a different function?
Superior colliculus
What is not a part of the auditory cortex?
Opthalmic, trigeminal, spinal trigeminal, and primary sensory area
Order of ascending pathway of conscious awareness?
Oxytocin
What is not made by the anterior pituitary?
Dentate nucleus
Where do Perkinje fibers project?
All of the above (DRG, pain, distention)
Autonomic afferents carry what?
Telencephalon
Olfactory tract is an outgrowth from where?
Myelinated
Preganglionic sympathetic fibers are what?
Fimbrae of Hippocampus to Mammillary body
Fornix originates from where and goes to where?
Trapezoid
Major decussation of auditory is
Reticular Nucleus
Which of the following is not part of the epithalmus?
Medial Striae
Which of the olfactory crosses over?
Cochlear Duct
Organ of Corti...
Fornix
Hypothalamus is separated by what?
VPM
What senses pain in the face?
Cerebellum
Intention tumor would be caused by a lesion to which?
Substantia Nigra/Dopamine Depletion
What is a Basal Ganlia problem?
Rigidity
Resistance to passive movement
Dorsal Motor Nucleus of Vagus
Parasympathetic innervation to the heart is from what?
Epithelium
Olfactory nerve body is in what?
Glomeruli of olfactory bulb
Olfactory axon synapses in what?
Septal Nucleus
Where is the reward center?
Hippocampus
Which is not part of the Basal Ganglion?
Inferior Olivary nucleus
Climbing fibers originate where?
Lateral geniculate nucleus
Which thalamic nucleus is involved with the visual cortex?
Preganglionic Parasympathetic
S2-S4 fibers are what?
Spiral Nucleus
Cochlear nucleus receives afferents from where?
Lingual Gyrus
Which is not involved in motor movement?
Olfactory
This can't be mapped in the brain
Mitral cells
Olfactory glomeruli contain fibers of what?
Neurons of the posterior pituitary
Vasopressin is released from where?
Sympathetics
Monty Python rabbits running
Media Stria
These cross over the contralateral olfactory
Retinacular nucleus
What is not part of epithelial?
Circumventricular organ
Which area is postrema/Outside the blood brain barrier?
Parasympathetic preglanglionic
Pelvic Splanchnic related to what?
Pterygopalatine
Postganglionic lacrimal gland is what?
Dorsal motor nucleus of Vagus
Innervation of the heart comes from where?
Internal Salivitory Nucleus
Preganglionic GVE of Otic gland?
Prolactin
The hypothalamus secretes this
Vision
Lateral geniculate nucleus is for what?
Every 1-3 months
Olfactory epithelium is replaced how often?
Circumventricular Organ
If you inject intravenous dye it shows where?
Thoracics
White rami communicans are found where?
Septal cells
Memory related to what?
Olfactory epithelium
This contains olfactory receptor cells
Ectoderm
CNS is from what germ layer?
6
Cerebral cortex can have up to how many lamina?
Middle cerebral
What artery supplies lateral cerebrum?
Between 3rd and 4th ventricles
Where is Cerebral aqueduct?
Ectoderm to form the neural plate
Notochord stimulates the _____ to form the _____
Follicular/Merkel/Free nerve endings
Wich receptors are not myelinated?
Middle cerebral artery
What artery runs along the lateral sulcus?
Inferior olivary nucleus
What is not part of auditory pathway?
Endolymph
Scala media contains what?
Intermediate olfactory striae
Which olfactory striae is involved in conscious perception of smell?
Medial
What olfactory striae is contralateral?
Trigmeninal (afferent) and Facial (efferent)
Corneal blink reflex involves?
7
How many functional components are in the brainstem?