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Consumer Behavior

is the satisfaction or pleasure one gets from consuming it

The utility of a good or service:

positive, negative, or zero

Marginal utility can be:


Mary says, "You would have to pay me $50 to attend that pro wrestling event." For Mary, the marginal utility of that event is:


The ability of a good or service to satisfy wants is called:

satisfies consumer wants

A product has utility if it:

beyond some point additional units of a product will yield less and less extra satisifacion to a consumer

The law of diminishing marginal utility states that:

increase the marginal utility of the last unit consumed of this good

If the price of product X rises, then the resulting decline in the amount purchased will:

change in total utility obtained by consuming one more unit of a good

Marginal utility is the:

satisfaction that a consumer derives from a good or service

Utility refers to the:

summing the marginal utilities of each unit consumed

Total utility may be detrmined by:

is positive, but may be either increasing or decreasing

If total utility is increasing, marginal utility:


Where total utility is at a maximum, marginal utility is:

demand curves slope downward

The law of diminishing marginal utility explains why:

Alex may have to lower the price to convince Kara to buy a second slice

While eating at Alex's "Pizza by the slice" restaurant., Kara experiences diminishing marginal utility. She gained 10 units of satisfaction from her first slice pizza consumed, and would only recieve 5 units of satisfaction from consuing a second slice. Based on this information we can conclude that:

consumers behave rationally, attempting to maximize their satisfaction

The theory of consumer behavior assumes that:

marginal utility obtained from the last dollar spent on each product is the same

To maximize utility a consumer should allocate money income so that the:

more of X and less of Y

Suppose that MUx/Px exceeds MUy/Py. To maximize utility the consumer who is spending all her money income should buy:

more of B and less of A

Ben is exhausting his money income consuming products A and B in such quantities that MUa/Pa = 5 and MUb/Pb = 8. Ben should purchase:

their marginal utilities are the same

Suppose you have a limited money income and you are purchasing products products A and B whose prices happen to be the same. To maximize your utility you should purchase A and B in such amounts that:

MUa/Pa = MUb/Pb = MUc/Pc ... = MUn/Pn

A consumer is maximizing her utility with a particular money income when:

should buy less B and more A

Suppose that Ms. Thomson is currently exhausting her money income by purchasing 10 units of A and 8 units of B at prices of $2 and $4 respectively. The marginal utility of hte last units of A and B are 16 and 24 respectively. These data suggest that Ms. Thomson:

the marginal utility of the last dollar spent on each good purchased will be the same

If a rational consumer is in equilibrium, which of the following conditions will hold true?

ratios of the marginal utility of each product purchased divided by its price are equal

A consumer who has a limited budget will maximize utility or satisfaction when the:

decrease the marginal utility per dollar spend on A

An increase in the price of product A will:

total utility

The theory of consumer behavior assumes that consumers attempt to maximize:

X rises and the marginal utility of Y falls

When a consumer shifts purchases from product X to product Y the marginal utility of:

has a higher "marginal utility to price ratio" for the hockey game than for the play

Prashanth decides to buy a $75 ticket to a particular New York professional hockey game rather than $50 ticket for a particular Broadway play. We can conclude that Prashanth:

demand curves are downsloping

Diminishing marginal utility explains why:

they all help explain the downsloping demand curve

What do the income effect, the substitution effect, and diminishing marginal utility have in common?

marginal utility diminishes as more of a product is consumed

A consumer's demand curve for a product is downsloping because

one should consume less of time-intensive goods

In introducing the opportunity cost of time into the theory of consumer we find that, all else equal:

Apple introduced new features to entice previous buyers to purchase new models

How did Apple overcome consumers' diminishing marginal utility for iPods?

essential goods may be cheap while nonessential goods may be expensive

The diamond-water paradox arises because:

the price of a product is related to its marginal utility, not its total utility

The diamond-water paradox occurs because:

the supply of water is great relative to demand and the supply of diamonds is small relative to demand

"Essential" water is cheaper than "nonessential" diamonds because:

increases the amount of health care consumed by reducing the price of additional units of care

The fact that most medical purchases are financed through insurance:

once the all-you-can-eat meal is purchased, consumers view additional trips back to the buffet as having a price of zero

who do people tend to eat more at all-you-can-eat buffet restaurants than at restaurants where each item is purchased separately?

noncash transfers are less efficient than cash transfers

Most economists contend that:

reduce recipient utility to a cash gift because noncash gifts often fail to match recipient preferences

Noncash gifts:

there is a $10 or 50% value loss

If you recieve a gift whose market price is $20, but you consider it to be worth only $10, then:

increase the efficiency of gift-giving because they allow the recipient to consume goods

According to economists, gift registries, returning gifts for cash refunds, and "recycling gifts."

each successive unit of loss hurts, but less than the previous unit

According to behavioral economics:

the positive utility Laua received from seeing her portfoli value rise was less than the disutility she felt when its value declined

Last month Laura saw the value of her stock portfolio rise by $20,000. this month, she saw the value of her portfolio decline by $20,000. According to behavioral economics:

Firms will reduce package sizes, but keep prices the same, thus increasing the per unit price of the good

According to prospect theory, what strategy will firms typically employ with regard to pricing and packaging their goods, when faced with rising production costs

consumers feels the loss of a price increase more than they feel the loss of buying a smaller package for their money

According to prospect theory, firms are more likely to shrink packages than raise prices because:

whether a new situation is viewed as a gain or a loss depends on one's starting position

According to the concept of framing effects:

it should advertise that the "low fat" sour cream has only "half the fat" of the regular sour cream

Suppose that dairy barn foods produces a regular sour cream with 10 grams of fat per serving, and a "low fat" sour cream with only 5 grams of fat per serving (assume that this still considered a lot of fat to consume per serving). According to prospect theory, how should Dairy Barn promote its "low fat" sour cream.

Josh's satisfaction with that salary depends on how much he made in the past

Josh will recieve a salary of $300,000 next year. According to prospect theory:

Credit card companies want to increase profits by promoting slower repayment, and actual customer payments will be anchored by the smaller payment requirements

Who do credit card companies typically require small minimum payment amounts on their customers' monthly credit card statements?

Can influence decision-making with irrelevant information


people isolate purchases and sometimes make irrational decisions

Because of "mental accounting"

mental accounting

The process by which people isolate purchases and fail to consider all consumption options simultaneously is known as

people assign higher values to things they own than things they don't

According to the "endowment effect:"

diminishing marginal utility

Newspaper dispensing devices seemingly "trust" people to take only a single paper but the devices actually rely on the law of:

marginal utility of extra soft drink cans or bottles declines slowly, particularly because they are storable and can be consumed later

Unlike newspaper dispensing devices, soft drink dispensing machines do not permit people to take more than one can or bottle with each payment. The reason is that the:

increasing our level of consumption doesn't make us any happier in the long term

The hedonic trendmill refers to a phenomenon where:

enrollment in these programs was set as the default option and workers had to request to be unenrolled

participation in company retirement saving programs has increased dramatically because:

subtle changes in policies or practices that result in large behavioral changes

"Nudges" refer to:

all possible combinations of two goods that can be purchased, given money income and the prices of the goods

The budget line shows:

the prices of both products and money income are assumed to be constant

In moving along a given budget line:

budget line to the left

Increases in product prices shift the consume's:

the price of one good relative to the other

A change in the slope of a budget line is solely the result of a change in:

is unattainable, given the consumer's income

Any combination of goods lying outside of the budget line

may shift either to the right or the left, or not at all

if money income increases and the prices of products A and B both increase, then the budget line:

alternative combinations of two goods that a consumer can purchase with a given money income

a budget line shows the:

price ratio of the two products

The slope of a budget line reflects the:

her money income increasing more than proportionately to increases in the prices of X and Y

Edith is buying products X and Y with her money income. Suppose her budget line shifts rightward (outward). This might be the result of:

combinations of two products yielding the same total utility to a consumer

An indifference curve shows all:

is downsloping and convex to the origin

An indifference curve:

curves farther from the origin yield higher levels of total utility

An indifference map implies that:

consumer's willingnes to substitute one product for another so that total utility will remain constant

The marginal rate of substitution measures the:

declines as one moves southeast along an indifference curve

The marginal rate of substitution

presumes only that the consumer can say one combination of two goods yields more or less utility than some ohter combination

Indifference curve analysis:

Where the budget line is tangent to an indifference curve

Assume a diagram in which a budget line is imposed on an indifference map. A consumer will maximize her utility:

indifference map

the lines on a topographical map are analogous to a(n):


a topographical map shows successively higher equal-elevation lines, whereas an indifference map shows successively higher levels of total:

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