Chapter 6&7

Chapter 6: Water & Seawater Chapter 7: Air-Sea Interaction
Solid State
State of matter in which the substance has a fixed volume and shape. (Ice)
Liquid State
State of matter in which the substance has a fixed volume but no fixed shape. (Water)
Gaseous State
State of matter in which molecules move by translation and only interact through chance collisions. (Water Vapor)
Molecular Motion
Conversion of a liquid to a gas below the boiling point.
Conversion of water from the vapor to the liquid state.
Energy of moving molecules.
Direct measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules that make up a substance.
Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade.
Having two poles.
Method by which objects may be located in the ocean.
Hydrologic Cycle
System of 7 process that moves water from one reservoir to another.
Residence Time
Amount of time a water molecule stays in a particular reservoir.
Standard Seawater
Rule of Constancy of Composition
Concentration of a single major constituent can be measured to determine the total salinity of a given water sample.
Measure of how closely packed atoms and molecules are.
Total amount of solid material dissolved in water.
Surface Tension
Tendency for the surface of a liquid to contract owing to intermolecular bond attraction.
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion. Increases as the mass or velocity of the object in motion increases.
Ionic Bond
Chemical bond resulting from the electrical attraction that exists between cations and anions.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
The complete range of electromagnetic waves placed in order of increasing frequency.
Boiling Point
the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas at a given pressure.
Freezing Point
the temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid.
Arctic Circle
66.5 degrees north latitude.
Antarctic Circle
66.5 degrees south latitude.
Tropic of Cancer
23.5 degrees north latitude.
Tropic of Capricorn
23.5 degrees south latitude.
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Region between the tropics where the trade winds converge.
Jet Stream
narrow belt of strong winds that blows near the top of the troposphere
Trade Winds
Masses of air that move across Earth's surface from the subtropical high-pressure belts towards the equatorial low-pressure belt constitute.
Polar Easterly Winds
Cold air masses that move away from the polar regions toward lower latitudes.
Westerly Winds
winds that flow poleward as a result of earths rotation
Greenhouse Effect
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases.
Heat Budget
Equilibrium that exists on the average between the amaounts of heat absorbed by earth and that returned to space.
Coriolis Effect
Changes the intended path of a moving body. Causes moving objects on Earth to follow curved paths.
Water layer with a large change in salinity with depth.
A layer of water in which there is a rapid change in temperature with depth.
A rapid change in water density with depth.
Adiabatic Cooling
The cooling of a gas that happens when the gas expands with no way of getting more energy.
Warm Front
Contact between a warm air mass moving into an area occupied by cold air.
Cold Front
Contact between a cold air mass moving into an area occupied by warm air.
Tropical cyclone in North and South America.
A large floating mass of ice detached from a glacier.
Sea Ice
Frozen sea water.
Ice Floe
A flat mass of ice (smaller than an ice field) floating at sea.
Shelf Ice
Thick floating sheets of ice formed from edges of glaciers.
High Pressure Cell
an area of high pressure, usually has pleasant weather
Low Pressure Cell
Created when warm, less dense air rises.
A stratus cloud that forms when air is cooled to its dew point near the ground.
Sea Smoke
Dry, cold air from land moves over warmer water.