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Theodore Roosevelt

26th president (1901-1909), known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War.

William Taft

Elected 27th President in 1909-1913, believed in conservation, trustbuster, Dollar Diplomacy. Chief Justice after presidency.

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States (1913-1921), Democrat, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize.

Bull Moose Party

Progressive Republicans who supported Theodore Roosevelt during the election of 1912

Eugene Debs

Ran for U.S. President five times as a socialist. The last attempt was made while he was serving time in prison for obstructing the draft of World War I.

Frederick Taylor

an American efficiency engineer who wrote "The Principles of Scientific Management", which earned him the title "father of scientific management"

Gifford Pinchot

head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt; conservationist who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them

Richard Ballinger

Taft's Secretary of the Interior, allowed a private group of business people to obtain several million acres of Alaskan public lands

Alice Paul

leader of the National Woman's party, campaigned for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution

Franz Ferdinand

archduke of Austria-Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand; his death was a main cause for World War I

Garrilo Princip

Black Hand member that killed Franz Ferdinand.

election of 1912

T. Roosevelt split the republican party by running in the "bull moose party." Against Taft (republican), Debs (Socialist) and Wilson (democrat). Wilson won, but Roosevelt came second.

Federal Reserve Act

Woodrow Wilson's most notable legislative success, this 1913 act reorganize the American banking system by creating a network of twelve federal reserve banks authorzied to distribute currency.

Ludlow Massacre

Workers for Rockefeller coal mine in Colorado, 1914, were brutally murdered by state troopers after going on strike, leaving the company, and retaliating against it (attacking the Pinkertons). Drew national attention to the corruption of capitalism, and how the government sent in the troops to kill innocent civilians.

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

Disaster at a New York factory in 1911 when 146 workers were either burned or jumped to their deaths from the eight or ninth floor, most of them young women.

Payne-Aldrich tariff

Initially a tariff lowering tariff, but became a protective measure when compromises were made in the Senate. Harmed Taft's reputation (broke campaign promise of lower tariffs) and the unity of the Republicans.

The New Nationalism

Roosevelt's new set of principles which strayed away from his strong conservative views. He argued that human welfare was more important than property rights and believed in a powerful federal government.

16th amendment

Amendment that legalizes the income tax

17th amendment

allowed for the direct election of senators


The right to vote.


the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment

vera cruz incident

Major port city, located in east-central Mexico on the Gulf of Mexico; in 1914, Wilson ordered the U.S. navy to occupy the port


National American Woman Suffrage Association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote


Location where the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austrian Empire was assassinated

Jack Johnson

First African American boxer to win the World Heavyweight title (1908), represented idea of the "New Negro" in early-1900s American culture.

Henry Ford

a factory owner famous for his Model T. He developed the assembly line, which quickened production in factories, as well as the Model T.


Declared war on Serbia because Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

the Central Powers

Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire

the allies

wartime Alliance between Britain, Italy, France, Russia, Serbia, Portugal, Greece, US

dollar diplomacy

President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad

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