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ch 13 starch
Terms in this set (38)
Amylose is a
A. branched structure that provides gelling characteristics.
B. branched structure that provides thickening properties.
C. long chainlike structure that provides gelling characteristics.
D. long chainlike structure that provides thickening properties.
The substance most responsible for gel formation in a starch-thickened pudding is
A starch that will thicken in a cold water system has been modified with
A. physical process
Starch granules may rupture resulting in a slick and pasty mouthfeel when the starch mixture has been subjected to excess
Which of the following will produce the softest gel, and undergo the least retrogradation when used in equal weights in a pudding?
B. wheat flour
C. wheat starch
D. tapioca starch
What is likely to occur when dry starch or flour is stirred into a hot liquid?
A. retrogration occurs
B. a smooth paste forms easily
C. starch particles clump, and become hydrated on the surface
D. starch granules swell immediately, and become evenly hydrated
At what temperature range will the swelling of common corn starch granules be complete?
Microwavable foods may be improved when specially modified starches are used in place of traditional starches because
A. heat distribution throughout the food may not be even.
B. there may be insufficient time for proper hydration of the granules.
C. there is a tendency for the material on the bottom of the container to scorch.
D. A and B
When a starch mixture thickens because of moist heat it is called
2 types of carbs
2 simple carbs
mono and disaccharides
how many sugars do complex carbs have
3 or more
2 complex carbs
starch, df-structures plants use to build on
flour vs. starch
1)starch-carb element, digestible polysaccharide, major storage form of energy in plants, 2)flour-everything else
polymers of repeating glucose in starch and dextrins
dextrins:short polymers of glucose (3-100), polymers is a repeating unit of glucose(100+)
2 forms of starch
alpha 1-4 glucose, straight chains
alpha 1-4 and 1-6 bonds, branched chains
25% amylose, 75% amylopectin
storage of starches
stored in granules which are different shapes and sizes
starch as functions in foods
thickening agent(gravy), texture(crispy), browning
cold water starch interaction
uptake or inhibition, starch absorbs water and swells slightly, swelling is insignificant and irreversible, granules remain intact
hot water starch interaction
gelatinization-thickening of starch when heated in water, granules swell and are destroyed, starches swell 2-3x in hot water, most starches completely gelatinize by 95 degrees, quicker to recook, easier to digest
ex of gelatinized starches
instant rice, oatmeal, mashed potatoes, al dente
bacteria that can be made in 5 hours
% of people who wash hands after using restroom
less than 50%
what is a pathogen
dont cause changes in food by appearance or taste, m/o that can cause infection
more gelatinized a starch is the worse it is for you because it makes for a higher glycemic index, bad for diabetes
what is gelation
thickening of cooked starch when cooling, forms gel, ex. gravy
why gelation occurs
amylose chain leach from granules during cooking, bond to each other and form gel during cooling
high % amylose->more gelation
gets thicker when cooling
do starches thicken more during gelation or gelatinization
some thicken more during each
high amylopectin thicken more during gelatinization or gelation
gelatinization, usually cools during cooling and gelation, forms clear gel:potato starch
high amylose thicken more during gelation or gelatinization
more during gelation phase but does thicken a little during gelatinization, forms cloudy gels: corn starch
partial reformation of starch granules, over time after a starch has been cooked, thicker during gelatinized starch
cooked(gelatinized) starch when dries out, prolonged retrogradation, forms hard crystals, ex. stale bread, edible, not microbial growth
loss of water from gel, water leaks from cut gel, ex. yogurt, pudding, pie
mailard rxn-terminal sugar in starch bonds to an amino acid in a protein, forms brown compounds:toast, common in low sugar foods (toast, biscuits, etc), high heat required:~150c, non enzymatic browning, brown vegs before adding water: once water is there it cant go above 100c
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