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Motivation is defined by psychologists as

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.

Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and

drive reduction.

Which theory has been accused of simply naming rather than explaining behaviors?


A complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species is called a(n)


It is characteristic of bears to hibernate. This behavior is an example of


A need refers to

a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.

An aroused, motivated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called a(n)


For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce


Victims of a famine will often eat unappetizing and nutritionally poor foods simply to relieve their constant hunger. Their behavior is best explained in terms of

drive-reduction theory

Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as

the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.

Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called


On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star on their helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of


Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?

arousal theory

The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for

food and water

On the basis of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, one would be LEAST likely to predict that a

prisoner might choose to die rather than betray his or her country.

The set point is

the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time

An explanation of motivation in terms of homeostasis is best illustrated by the concept of

set point.

Basal metabolic rate is the body's resting rate of

energy expenditure

People's dislike of novel foods best illustrates


The recipes commonly used in countries with hot climates are more likely to include ________ than those in countries with colder climates.


The tendency to eat more food when eating with others illustrates a phenomenon called

social facilitation.

Judy found that her party guests ate less from a very large plate of cupcakes that were cut in half rather than whole. This best illustrates

unit bias.

Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by

an obsessive fear of becoming obese.

About eight months ago, 14-year-old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously underweight and under-nourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated father recently forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went to the bathroom and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from

anorexia nervosa.

Twenty-two-year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack foods and rich desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, she frequently takes a laxative following episodes of binge eating. Tawana most clearly suffers from

bulimia nervosa.

Researchers use biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis to understand eating disorders. The social-cultural level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize that eating disorders are influenced by

mass media standards of appearance.

An integrated understanding of rising obesity rates in terms of set points, culturally learned taste preferences, and the ready availability of large food portions is best illustrated by

a biopsychosocial approach.

The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a high

body mass index.

By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans to reduce her normal body weight by 10 to 15 percent. Research suggests that after three or four weeks of sustained dieting, Marilyn will

have a lower resting metabolic rate.

If your close friend becomes obese, the odds of you likewise becoming obese increase. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on obesity.

social influence

Which of the following suggestions would be the WORST advice for a dieter?

"Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening."

The first stage of the sexual response cycle is

an excitement stage.

A problem that consistently interferes with one's ability to complete the sexual response cycle is called

refractory period

Orgasmic dysfunction is one form of

refractory period.

In most nonhuman mammals, female sexual receptivity is greatest when

estrogen levels are highest.

Professor Langley emphasizes that premature sexual activity among high school students involves the interplay of alcohol consumption, mass media norms, and teens' underestimation of their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections. The professor's emphasis best illustrates

a biopsychosocial approach

Ivan just spent an evening watching pornographic movies of attractive women who actually seemed to enjoy being sexually molested. This experience is most likely to lead him to

be more willing to hurt women.

Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because

of all these reasons.

Unlike in men, a high sex drive in women is likely to be associated with an increased same-sex attraction as well as an increased opposite-sex attraction. This best illustrates women's greater

erotic plasticity.

It has been suggested that the fraternal birth-order effect is a result of

maternal immune systems.

When people's need to belong is fulfilled through close relationships, they are less likely to

do any of these things.

A deep sense of well-being results when our need for relatedness is satisfied in balance with our psychological need for


Our need to belong is most clearly threatened by


After studying artists who would spend hour after hour painting or sculpting with enormous concentration, Csikszentmihalyi formulated the concept of


Flow is characterized by a ________ awareness of self and a ________ awareness of the passing of time.

diminished; diminished

Human factors psychologists are most likely to be involved in

exploring how machines can be optimally designed to fit human abilities.

Developing assessment tools for selecting and placing employees is of most direct relevance to

organizational psychology

Scales and checklists on which supervisors indicate the extent to which a worker is productive, follows correct procedures, and attends to customers' needs are designed primarily for the purpose of improving

performance appraisal.

Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best university teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of

achievement motivation.

A business setting in which workers have regular opportunities to do what they do best and perceive that they are part of something significant is one that promotes

employee engagement

By publicly praising their employees' positive behaviors, managers often encourage their workers to continue laboring productively. This best illustrates the value of

a democratic management style.

Motivating workers to identify with and commit themselves to a group mission best illustrates

transformational leadership.

If given a chance to express their own opinions during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision. This illustrates

a voice effect.

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