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Begging the Question

presenting a premise as if it were a fact when it is debatable

ad hominem

In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas. It comes from the Latin meaning "against the man."

non sequitur

Latin for "it does not follow." When one statement isn't logically connected to another

appeal to tradition

a proposal that something should continue because it has traditionally existed or been done that way


stating that something should be done (or agreed to) because everyone else thinks this way

false analogy

When two cases are not sufficiently parallel to lead readers to accept a claim of connection between them.

false authority

fallacy in which a claim is based on the expertise of someone who lacks appropriate credentials

false cause

A fallacy that occurs when the alleged cause fails to be related to, or to produce the effect: "the black cat crossing the street brought me bad luck, so I had an accident."

false dilemma

occurs when it is suggested that only two alternatives exist even though there may be others

hasty generalization

drawing conclusions based on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence


trying to provide a simple solution to a complex problem

slippery slope

a fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented

appeal to pity

the reader is persuaded to agree by sympathy

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