its not accurate bc it says that everyone will react the same to a message
what does the indirect effects model say?
bc of our backgrounds and the way we were raised, we will react differently to a message
how does The Peoples Choice study relate to the indirect effect model?
-the people who started off with strong opinions (the indirect ones) are unlikely to change them -the voters who pay the most attention to the campaign are the ones with strong political views and their least likely to change their opinions
Herbert Gans made a list of the 8 journalistic values
-ethnocentrism -altruistic democracy -responsible capitalism -small town pastoralism -individualism -moderatism -social order -leadership
whats the difference between message effects and medium effects?
-message effects are the impact of the content thats being communicated to you -medium effects are the impact of the delivery system
what did Marshall McLuhan say about relationship between medium and message?
the medium is the message
sony walkman had a big impact on the music industry, what was it?
it was the first concept of personal soundtrack and personal music library
give example of how radio news is not dead
-morning edition has more viewers than many of the major network shows -popularity of news talk on the radio
what impact did TV have on the radio?
it turned radio into a companion medium, its not entertainment for itself its entertainment that you use for multitasking
list 2 popular radio formats including the #1 format for 2014
-country -news talk radio
what is the method of recording sound that involves storing it in a series of numbers and why do tech companies worry about this?
you can copy digital media much more easily/cheaper than other forms of media -its the primary format in which music is now recorded
what is a podcast?
a compressed audio file that can be listened to online or downloaded
many performers in the music industry make less money from selling music than they do from what?
merchandising & ancillary (secondary markets)
why have some shock jocks (or radio personalities) moved to satellite radio from terrestrial radio (am/fm) ?
-its less censored, they can get away with being more vulgar/obscene bc its not regulated as much
what is the FCC (federal communications system) ?
they regulate the broadcast radio and broadcast TV industries
what is the most significant impact of the telecommunications act of 1996?
they took off the limits that companies had on how many radio stations they can own
what is the most popular way to watch movies at home today? and why does that have movie theaters especially concerned?
-streaming -it concerns theaters bc people can just wait for it to come out at home to watch whenever its cheaper, so less people are going to the actual movies
what do critics of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) say are the problems of the current movie rating system?
that because the members are all parents they judge sex too harshly, they would rather let violence show than sex scenes
before the MPAA there was something called the hayes office which regulated film, why did the movie companies do that?
they were afraid that if they didn't regulate film themselves, than the gov. would tell them what they could and couldn't put in movies
what is the blacklist that affected the movie industry in the 1940s and 50s?
the house committee on american activities was investigated; they blackballed people and said they couldn't work in the movie industry
how did movies respond to the growth of TV?
they tried to create an experience that you couldn't get at home, so more people would come to the theatre
where do movies make money besides the theatre?
-merchandise -international distribution -airing on TV -(ancillary markets)
who was Philo T Farmsworth?
he invented the basic TV technology
what medium do most americans use for news?
why are TV shows now routinely streamed online by the broadcast networks?
-its a money related system -if they don't put their programming on a streaming service, then someone will go and illegally download it...therefore the TV show won't make profit
what did they try to do when VCRs first arrived on the scene?
tried to get rid of it by making it illegal to record a TV show at home (but it failed)
define the term cord cutter
people who have canceled traditional cable service and only view TV via video streaming
why was cable TV originally developed?
-to service poor rural communities where regular TV wasn't -a way for people to have universal access
what do we mean by social TV?
people discussing TV with each other via social media
whats the measurement tool we use to determine whether or not broadcast TV is popular or how many people are watching?
ratings (the biggest rating company is Nielson)
according to Gerard Monogan, elements of a strong TV news story are?
-relevance -good video -good sound
TV stations were required to broadcast in digital in 2009, how can HDTV offer new ways to make more money?
-better picture -they can charge a premium -they can split their signal so that they can use the same bandwidth to broadcast multiple channels at once to have "sub channels"
why would a big cable company like AT&T oppose the net neutrality movement?
because the net neutrality movements makes it all equal content, so AT&T wouldn't be able to charge more for certain things
what is HTML vs. URL
-HTML-a standard format for appearance on the web, the look is essentially the same no matter what browser is being used -URL-a website address
why was the social network Twitter developed
as a way for people to quickly post status's and share where they are/what they're doing
who conceived the idea for the world wide web? why did the technology spread so quickly?
- Tim Bernes-Lee, he thought it should be free -it spread so quickly bc anybody could have access to any document in the world now
example of a news aggregator and what it does
-google news -news aggregators collect the stories that are getting the most interest/traffic online to present to you the most important news of the day
the internet allows for several different types of communication
-interpersonal group -mass communications -group communications
what are cookies in the internet world?
they keep track of what you search and how you're using web content, they sell us to advertisers to bring them key audiences
what media relies on ability to sell audience to advertisers?
almost all medium has some sort of advertising based content, their selling us to advertisers to bring them the audience
example of indirect advertising
an ad that doesn't require you to go out and do something immediately (ex. coca cola ads) these ads are sometimes called image spots
example of direct advertising
an ad that wants you to go out right then and purchase the product (ex. happy hour from 6-9)
whats currently the biggest advertising medium in the US?
TV , (media coming in strong behind)
what are the elements of integrated marketing communications?
-marketing -advertising -PR -sales promo -new media
how would you define the term 'targeted ad' and give an example go how a company might do that
an ad designed to reach a very specific audience
what are subliminal ads?
promotional messages that the recipient are not actually aware of
what are the 2 primary types of publics that a PR practitioner has to worry about?
who was Ivy Lee and what does he get credit for?
-he was credited the first person to say PR needs to be true and you need to respond quickly (truth and timeliness)
what should companies use social media for in their PR efforts?
what were some of the good crisis communication PR moves made by the german wings company after a plane crash this year?
-they were ready/responded quickly -their CEO got on youtube talking about the incident that night -they sent out their social media in multiple languages -they had a crisis communication plan in place before the crash
whats the relationship between PR and journalism?
-PR is the source of many news stories that journalist get; most of what we see on TV and advertisements is the result of PR companies pushing for them to talk and write about it
what is libel?
a published statement that unjustifiably exposes someone to ridicule or contempt
what are the elements of libel?
-publication -identification -defamation (messing up their rep)
what are the standard defenses against libel?
-if its true -if its an opinion -a privilege -absence of malice (if a person is a public figure)
what is a shield law and what makes it difficult to get a federal shield law passed?
-a shield law protects journalists -its difficult to get a federal shield law bc they can find exactly where a journalist is
what are critics concerned about with the USA patriot act?
-privacy (Edward Snowden- associated with the USA patriot act)
free speech guarantees freedom of the press, but what type of journalist is not necessarily covered in the same way as a professional journalist?
-a stupid journalist
what does the first amendment guarantee that is especially important for communicators?
freedom of speech and freedom of the press
what is fair use in copy right law?
the part of the law that says that you can take a picture and put it in your presentation as long as you credit the source, if using for educational purposes (ex. fox news with the 9/11 picture)
who was Barbara Ringer?
considered the author of modern copy right law
seek truth and report it, is one of the 4 principles of journalist code of ethics; whats the rest?
-be accountable -minimize harm -act independently
example of a conflict of interest
-some ownership that a news organization is a part of that creates the potential for them to report unfairly -example would be, the tribune company in chicago being a part of the cubs
difference between moral and ethics?
-morals- the way your parents raised you, beliefs on how you should live your life -ethics- using rational thinking to decide what is the best answer or a defensible answer, not necessarily the right answer but one you can defend
what countries are typically considered most free and least free? (press freedom index)
Finland, North Korea, Africa, and the US
example on how news media is different in different parts of the world
-alot more censorship -giving money to help fund the media
in most of Africa, internet access is below 20%, in North America its up to 80%; whats the difference between these called?
whats the difference between product integration and product placement?
-product placement- ex: when you're watching a TV show and a coke can is just sitting there (to promote advertising) -product integration- ex: when the coke can is a part of the actual story line of the TV show, part of the plot