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U.S. History State Test

Study questions for U.S. History state test
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pre-Civil War most important economic segment
agriculture
Mark Twain's term for the Industrial Era
Gilded Age
theory justification for unethical business practices
Social Darwinism
act that set up A & M colleges
1862 Morrill Act
how government helped promote industrialization
keeping tariff high & allowing lots of immigrants into the U.S. to be cheap labor for factories
where immigrants entered u.s.
Ellis Island
major inventions of the industrial era
cheaper steel/ light bulb/ cash register/ dictaphone/ mimeograph/ use of electricity
invented light bulb, phonograph, movies
Thomas Alva Edison
invented the telephone
Alexander Graham Bell
invented way to make cheap steel
Henry Bessemer
3 names for big businessmen
positive- captains of industry, industrial statesmen negative- robber barons
new form of business organization during industrial era
corporation
synonym for trust
monopoly
America's first billionaire
Rockefeller
drilled 1st oil well
Edwin Drake
John D. Rockefeller's oil company
Standard Oil of Ohio
Rockefeller's type of consolidation
horizontal; he consolidated the refineries
Carnegie's business
steel
Carnegie's type of consolidation
vertical; he brought together entire companies from top to bottom
Carnegie's book and ideas
GOSPEL OF WEALTH: young men should get as much as possible early. old men should give away money to charity
where Carnegie's money went
libraries
a rich money donor
philanthropist
he bought out Carnegie
J.P. Morgan
tobacco monopolist
Duke
meat monopolist
Swift & Armour
growth of cities
urbanization
problems of urbanization
crime/overcrowding/pollution/ shortages of water/traffic/slums/ghettos
new leisure activities of late 1800s
bicycle/boxing (no gloves)/baseball (no gloves)/basketball/vaudeville/reading
yellow press editors
Wm. Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer
wrote dime novels
Horatio Alger
description of working conditions in the late 1800s
horrible, bad relations with bosses, low pay, long hours, poor conditions, even hazardous
groups formed by labor to improve their lives
unions
small, radical group who gave all union members a bad name
anarchists, who opposed government authority
peaceful means of negotiating labor disputes
arbitration
stopping work to protest poor working conditions
strike
a court order to return to work
injunction
president-used troops in the RR strike of 1877
Hayes
strike-1892 Carnegie factory
Homestead
3 major unions of the late 1800s
Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, American railway union
leader of the Knights of Labor
Terence Powderly
leader of the American Federation of Labor
Samuel Gompers
event that killed the Knights of Labor
Haymarket Square Riot 1886
RR car maker whose workers struck in 1894
George Pullman
public opinion of unions
bad-negative
1890 act making monopolies illegal
Sherman Antitrust Act
founded Hull House to aid city poor
Jane Addams
wrote a book to make people aware of poor living in slums
Jacob Riis
wrote PROGRESS AND POVERTY
Henry George
wrote LOOKING BACKWARD, 2000-1887
Edward Bellamy
radical socialist; wrote THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO & DAS KAPITAL
Karl Marx
2 groups opposed to alcohol abuse
Women's Christian Temperance Union & Anti-Saloon League
transportation industry-problem for farmers
railroad
farmers' two major economic problems
railroad & money
farmer organization to fight RR
patrons of husbandry-the grange
founder of the Grange
Oliver Kelley
supreme court Grange case
Munn v. Illinois
1st national government attempt to regulate business
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
government should stay out of business
laissez-faire
increase in the money supply and an increase in prices
inflation
falling prices and a decreased money supply
deflation
farm term for government decision to coin only gold money
Crime of '73
metal farmers demanded coined to add to money supply
silver
political 3rd party pro-silver farmers supported in the 1870s
Greenback Party
the farmer's complaint about the tariff
too high and made prices too high
2 businessmen who sold directly to farmers
Sears and Roebuck and Montgomery Ward
invented the steel plow; the reaper
plow-John Deere reaper; reaper-Cyrus McCormick
consolidator of the New York Central RR system
Cornelius Vanderbilt
inventor of the air brake
George Westinghouse
2 RRs composing the 1st transcontinental
Union Pacific and Central Pacific
immigrant workers on the 1st transcontinental RR
Irish, Chinese
builder of the great northern RR
James J. Hill
main thing Indians and whites differed about
land-the whites owned it and the Indians shared it
east U.S. chiefs who 1st tried to stop whites
Osceola, Tecumseh
areas set aside for Indians
reservations
current state many east U.S. Indians moved to
Oklahoma
essential animal for plains Indians
buffalo
Indian fighters in the west
George Custer, Nelson Miles, George Crook
Colorado-1864- Col. Chivington's attack/massacre
Sand Creek
Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse defeated George Custer
Battle of the Little Bighorn
Nez Perce-1500-mile retreat almost to Canada
Chief Joseph
Apache-1886-last major chief to surrender
Geronimo
1890-Ghost Dancers-last Indian uprising
Wounded Knee
act requiring Indians to live as whites
Dawes Act
writers of pro-Indian books
Helen Hunt Jackson, Dee Brown
state which was the center of the cattle industry
Texas
Chisholm, Shawnee, Western, Sedalia, Goodnight-Loving
cattle trails
Abilene, Dodge City, Cheyenne, Kansas City
cow towns
perfecter of barbed wire
Joseph Glidden
major effect of barbed wire
made ranching possible, ended the open range
famous marshal of Abilene
"Wild Bill" Hickok
famous outlaws of the west
Jesse James, Billy the Kid
famous women of the west
Annie Oakley, Calamity Jane
buffalo hunter; star of a wild west show
Buffalo Bill Cody
2 most precious metals to western miners
gold, silver
mining towns: 1) suddenly there 2) suddenly gone
1) boom town 2) ghost town
person(s) who take(s) law into own hands
vigilantes
act providing free land on the Plains
Homestead Act
reasons farmers moved to the Great Plains
Homestead Act-cheap (almost free) land to make new start, railroad promotion
problems farmers found on the Great Plains
insect plagues, weather extremes, lack of surface water, lack of timber, prairie fires
general condition of late 1800s U.S. politics
corrupt
why politics was corrupt
Social Darwinism attitude of "all is fair," Laissez-faire-government stayed out of business; no rules during the Civil War spilled over into era after war
groups of crooked politicians who ran U.S. cities
political machines
most infamous political boss
William Tweed
cartoonist who exposed Boss Tweed
Thomas Nast
political scandal relative to the 1st transcontinental
Credit Mobilier
general/president whose administration had many scandals
Ulysses S. Grant
2 major political parties of the late 1800s
Republicans and Democrats
Republican platform
for business, gold, RRs, free western land, freed slaves, high tariff
"Don't vote Democrat-they are Southerners who started Civil War"
"waving the bloody shirt"
Democratic platform
for farmers, common man, immigrants, free silver, low tariff, "Solid South"
major political question of late 1800s
civil service reform-would people get government jobs because of spoils system (who you know) or merit system (what you know)
term for a government job
civil service
getting a government job by "who you know"
spoils system-also called patronage
getting a government job by "what you know"
merit system
Republicans who liked the old corrupt system
Old Guard; also called Stalwarts
Republicans who wanted reform
Half-breeds
1st president to attempt civil service reform
Hayes, whose Sec. of Interior Carl Schurz 1st used the system
president killed by a disappointed office seeker
James Garfield
started a Stalwart; finished a Half-breed
President Chester Arthur
law requiring test for government jobs
Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
2 major economic questions of the late 1800s
1. Would U.S. have gold standard or add silver to the money supply? 2. Would the tariff remain high or be lowered?
honest president-only Democrat of era-elected 2 times-not back to back
Grover Cleveland
Republicans who voted for Democrat Cleveland
Mugwumps
grandson of pres.; allowed Billion Dollar Congress to waste money
Benjamin Harrison
3rd party of mainly farmers in election of 1892
Populist/Peoples Party
candidate of Populists in 1892
James Weaver
writer of Populist platform
Ignatius Donnelly
Populist platform
8 hour work day, graduated income tax, RRs to return land not used to build RRs so farmers could get cheap under Homestead Act, silver, government ownership of RR/telephone/telegraph, farm warehouses, direct election of senators
pro-silver Democrat in the elections of 1896, 1900, 1908
William Jennings Bryan
famous Bryan pro-silver speech in 1896
"Cross of Gold"
U.S. policy-no involvement in foreign affairs
isolationism
policy of nations expanding and taking advantage of weaker areas
imperialism (expansionism)
U.S. belief it was meant to constantly spread westward
Manifest Destiny
why nations become imperialist
1. need for new markets 2. need for raw materials 3. dev. of repeating rifles/ machine guns to conquer people 4. need for naval bases for steamships 5. continuing idea of manifest destiny (spreading westward)
proponent of the "white man's burden"
Rudyard Kipling
connection of businessmen and imperialism
businessmen wanted new lands for raw materials to make new goods and to be new markets to sell them to
those opposed to U.S. imperialism/ why
Jane Addams, Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, Samuel Gompers and George Washington, who warned the U.S. not to get too tangled up with other nations' affairs. Many Americans felt imperialism violated the spirit of freedom established in the Declaration of Independence
importance of 1890 to U.S. imperialism
in 1890 the western frontier closed; there was no longer new land to settle. so in that year Americans began moving beyond our borders looking for new lands to take over.
American promoter of a strong U.S. navy
Alfred Thayer Mahan
promoted democracy and Christianity in OUR COUNTRY
Josiah Strong
island focus of the Spanish-American War
Cuba
document prohibiting European involvement in Western Hemisphere
Monroe Doctrine
year of the Spanish-American War
1898
letter which helped cause the Spanish-American War
De Lome letter
newspapers/editors whose lies led to Spanish-American War
yellow press editors-Joseph Pulitzer & William Randolph Hearst
U.S. ship whose explosion helped cause Spanish-American War
U. S. S. Maine
amendment opposing U.S. taking of Cuba in war
Teller Amendment
u.s. president reluctant to go to war with Spain
William McKinley
proof U.S. was not ready for war in 1898
1. wool uniforms to fight in a tropical climate 2. only 28,000 soldiers ready for battle 3. old weapons left over from the Civil War
branch of U.S. military most prepared for war
navy-encouraged to grow by Alfred Thayer Mahan in his book THE INFLUENCE OF SEA POWER ON HISTORY
commander of the Rough Riders military unit
Theodore Roosevelt
battle which made the Rough Riders famous
San Juan Hill
battle where Admiral William Sampson defeated Spanish fleet
Santiago
battle giving U.S. control of the Philippines
Manila Bay, led by George Dewey
major killer of soldiers during Spanish-American War
disease, especially yellow fever
treaty ending Spanish-American war
Treaty of Paris, 1898
nickname of the Spanish-American War
"the splendid little war"
lands U.S. gained after Spanish-American War
Puerto Rico, & Pacific possessions of Hawaii, Wake Island, the Philippines which formed a trade route to China
question of territorial rights-answer?
"Does the Constitution follow the flag?" answer- not completely. answer came from the Supreme Court in the insular cases
why the U.S. bought the Philippines after Spanish-American War
to use as a base to trade with China
future president-governor of the Philippines
William Howard Taft
Filipino rebel against U.S. control
Emilio Aguinaldo
u.s. military commander of Cuba after Spanish-American War
Leonard Wood
proved mosquito carrier of yellow fever in Cuba
Dr. Walter Reed
new document of U.S.-Cuba relations
Platt Amendment, which made U.S. the protector of Cuba
U.S. secretary of state responsible for Open Door policy
John Hay
nation that was focus of the open door
China
Chinese rebellion against foreign control in 1900
Boxer Rebellion in which U. S. sent troops to put down Chinese on their own soil
president in 1901 at McKinley's death
Theodore Roosevelt
distinction TR holds among presidents
youngest to ever become president
TR's personal traits-behavior
super energetic, curious, involved, reader, writer, outdoorsman & environmentalist
TR's presidential power philosophy
reform (change), stewardship theory-leave nation better than he found it; Jackson-Lincoln theory-use all power to help people
TR's motto in handling foreign affairs, esp. Western Hemisphere
"speak softly, but carry a big stick"
amendment by TR to the Monroe Doctrine/why
Roosevelt Corollary-to keep from looking like U.S. was approving of nonpayment of debts by Latin America nations
TR's "big ditch"
Panama Canal
engineer of the Panama Canal
George Goethals
health officer of the Panama Canal
William Gorgas
reasons U.S. has invaded Latin American countries
1. restore order 2. protect American people 3. protect American interests 4. protect Panama Canal
negative names for U.S. used in Latin America
"Colossus of the North" & "Yankee Imperialists"
U.S. use of money as a power tool
Dollar Diplomacy
TR's diplomatic tool in the Far East
balance of power
U. S. fear of growing Japanese strength in the early 1900s
yellow peril
TR's role in the Russo-Japanese War/why/award
peace maker-Nobel peace prize-to keep balance of power in Far East to protect American trade with China
2 agreements of era between U.S. and Japan
Root-Takahira Agreement and Gentlemen's Agreement
U.S. naval group TR sent to show Japan u.s.'s power
Great White Fleet
European country TR feared was growing too strong
Germany
European conflict TR postponed by about 10 years
World War I
secretary of state and defense under TR
Elihu Root
early 1900s reform movement to clean up U.S.
the Progressive Movement was a reform movement in the U.S. in the early 1900s, which had as its goal to clean up the evils that had been brought into existence in business, the government and politics, and society in general by the boom in industrialization immediately following the Civil War.
POLITICAL problems of the early 1900s
1. corruption resulting from the rule of bosses and political machines 2. businessmen's control of government, esp. Republicans 3. laissez-faire attitude in government 4. belief in Social Darwinism
ECONOMIC problems of the early 1900s
1. monopolies and trusts which were unfair to small businessmen and workers 2. huge gap between rich and poor and resulting hopelessness of the poor
SOCIAL problems of the early 1900s
1. slums-by 1910, 50 U.S. cities had populations of 100,000+ and all the accompanying problems 2. women's rights-did not yet have the right to vote; no voice in society or in government 3. child labor-had to work when they should have been in school 4. no protection for workers if injured on the job 5. abuses of liquor and saloons causing crime, missed work, and breakups of families
Progressive goals
1. to correct the abuses and injustices in society 2. to restore control of government to the people-more democracy 3. restore equal economic opportunity to all by writing new rules for business 4. they honestly believed that people could change and that good could triumph over evil
earlier reform movement similar to the Progressives
1. Populists were basically a farmers' movement; Progressives included a wider cross-section of society 2. Populists were hesitant about asking too much government help; Progressives wanted the government to directly intervene to help 3. Populists were actual victims of their conditions; Progressives were often sympathizers from the middle economic class, that is they were more wealthy than the farmers
those most likely to be Progressives
1. former populists and Grangers 2. labor union members 3. settlement house workers like Jane Addams 4. educators and scholars 5. prohibitionists--those who opposed the abuse of alcohol 6. naturalists, foresters, and conservationists 7. municipal and civil service reformers 8. some politicians, especially Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin 9. clergymen and church leaders 10. authors and editors
writers who exposed evils in society
muckrakers
leading muckraker magazines
many of these writers' articles were serialized (published in parts) in the well known muckraker magazines. 1. Ladies' Home Journal 2. Collier's Weekly 3. McClure's
Ray Stannard Baker
wrote FOLLOWING THE COLOR LINE about racial discrimination
Frank Norris
wrote THE OCTOPUS about the abuses of the railroads against farmers
Ida Tarbell
wrote A HISTORY OF THE STANDARD OIL COMPANY in which she exposed the horrible tactics used by John D. Rockefeller to get to the top
Lincoln Steffens
wrote THE SHAME OF THE CITIES about the bosses and political machines
John Spargo
wrote THE CRY OF THE CHILDREN about the horrible conditions of child labor
Upton Sinclair
wrote THE JUNGLE about the unsanitary conditions of the meatpacking industry
2 acts to ensure sanitary foods and medicines
Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act --protected consumers from bad foods, medicines, and meats by regulating ingredients and having meats inspected
1903 law that outlawed RR rebates
Elkins Act
1906 law that strengthened the 1887 Interstate Commerce Cct
Hepburn Act
TR's domestic progressive plan
Theodore Roosevelt was considered to be the first of the progressive presidents. his domestic program was called the Square Deal, meaning that he wanted a level playing field for all Americans, an equal opportunity for all, and for all to be treated fairly
act revived/used by TR against big business
Sherman Antitrust Act
TR's nickname for taking on big business
trust buster
1st company TR attacked as an illegal monopoly
dealing with big business 1. as a Republican, TR did not oppose big business, but unlike what one would normally expect of a Republican president, he did not allow all big businessmen to do at they pleased and he did not allow them to have as much influence in the gov't as they had in the past. 2. TR classified big businesses into two categories: good and bad. Those big businesses that did not violate the Sherman Antitrust Cct of 1890 and obeyed the law were good and TR left them alone to prosper. However, TR would not allow trusts and monopolies. He brought court suits against them to bust them up, earning him the nickname of the "trust buster." He brought a famous suit against J.P. Morgan's Northern Securities Company
TR's role in the coal strike of 1902
1. when coal miners went on strike for higher wages, the mine owners refused to negotiate with the workers. Winter was coming on and TR was determined that the American people were not going to get caught in the middle of this dispute and suffer with no heating fuel. 2. TR called both sides to the White House and threatened to take over the mines and have the military mine the coal. This threat resulted in the mine owners agreeing to arbitration. 3. The event was significant because it was the first time that the government intervened not automatically on the side of the big businessmen. TR believed that all parties should be equally treated and that government could and should regulate the big businesses for the good of the entire public.
TR's favorite progressive cause
conservation
areas where TR failed to act progressively
TR was not perfect however. There were several areas in which he did not accomplish needed reform, where he was "more noise than accomplishment." 1. he was not able to lower the tariff 2. he did not reform the banking system 3. he did not reform the money system
why TR did not run again in 1908
he promised he would not
man TR chose to succeed him
1. TR did not run again because he had promised that he would not. 2. However, TR chose his successor, William Howard Taft, who had served as governor of the Philippines after the U.S. bought the islands from the Spanish after the Spanish-American War in 1898 3. Democrats ran William Jennings Bryan for a third and last time. Taft beat him
put telephone/ telegraph lines under gov't regulation
Mann-Elkins Act
cabinet department Taft created to help workers
Department of Labor
workplace where workers are abused and unhealthy
sweatshops
signing this tariff made Taft look anti-progressive
Payne-Aldrich
firing this man made Taft appear anti-conservation
Gifford Pinchot-chief forester
supporting this speaker made Taft appear too conservative
Joe Cannon
Republican candidate in 1912 election
William Howard Taft
socialist candidate in 1912 election
Eugene Debs
third party that ran TR for president in 1912
Progressive (Bull Moose)
TR's political program in 1912
New Nationalism-give TR more power to regulate businesses
Democratic candidate in 1912 election
Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson;s political program in 1912
New Freedom-much like TR's original progressive plan- restore opportunity to the people, but without the power grab
why TR did NOT win in 1912
he seemed to want too much power
new lower tariff Wilson achieved in 1913
Underwood-Simmons
new Wilson plan to fix money and banking problems
Federal Reserve System
new Wilson anti-trust act of 1914
Clayton Antitrust Act
new government agency under Wilson to investigate business
Federal Trade Commission
Wilson anti-child labor act
Keating-Owen child labor law
law which set up and 8 hour work day for RR workers
Adamson Act
amendment to allow a federal income tax
16th amendment
amendment to allow direct election of U.S. senators by the people
17th amendment
amendment passed to control abuses of drinking
18th amendment
amendment allowing women to vote
19th amendment
2 new progressive forms of city government
commission city manager
voting in secret
Australian ballot
allows the people to petition gov't for change
initiative
a "yes-no" vote of the people
referendum
allows the people to choose candidates
direct primary
allows corrupt officials to be voted out before terms are up
recall
leading progressive educator
John Dewey-education should be useful and real and hands-on
2 groups failed by the progressives
blacks and immigrants
tactics used to hold blacks down in Progressive Era
1. Jim Crow laws requiring segregation (separation) 2. poor education 3. sharecropping farm system that kept blacks in debt
Supreme Court case in 1896 allowing "separate but equal"
Plessy v. Ferguson
black leader who proposed gradual equality plan in Atlanta Exposition speech
Booker T. Washington
school in Alabama founded by Booker T. Washington
Tuskegee Institute
black leader who proposed immediate equality
W.E.B. DuBois
group of black children W.E.B. DuBois wanted educated
"Talented Tenth"
1909 black promotion organization
national association for the advancement of colored people (NAACP)- DuBois and Jane Addams helped establish it
the event that halted the Progressive era
World War I
major provision of the nuclear test ban treaty (1963)
banned above ground testing/exploding of nuclear bombs and the polluting of the atmosphere the explosions caused
Kennedy's Latin America policy
knew the Latin Americans were upset by feeling neglected by U.S. in 1950s. JFK established the Alliance for Progress, a kind of Latin American Marshall Plan
Kennedy's Vietnam policy
had "advisers" there to train the South Vietnamese to fight communism; possibly was planning to pull the u.s. out of Vietnam at the time he was killed
JFK's wife and her role/achievements in his administration
Jackie Kennedy-beautiful, set fashion trends, held elaborate dinners to honor American artists, writers, and musicians, restored/renovated the White House
where and when Camelot ended; who's blamed and what his fate was
JFK was shot to death in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963. Lee Harvey Oswald was accused, but Jack Ruby shot Oswald two days later, so a trial was never held and conspiracy theories have abounded
Republican candidate election of 1960
Richard Nixon
JFK's brother and office held in the administration
Robert (Bobby) Kennedy-attorney general
leading scholars surrounding JFK in the white house
"the Best and the Brightest"
name applied to Kennedy's program
New Frontier (a reference to the space program)
term applied to Kennedy's gift of leadership
charisma
distinction JFK holds among elected presidents
U.S.'s youngest elected president
why Kennedy won the presidency in 1960
JFK looked better in the presidential debates on TV and he calmed fears about a Catholic being elected president in a speech he delivered.
pro's and con's of each candidate
NIXON pro-anti communist; experienced con-doubtful character KENNEDY pro-war hero; young, rich, handsome con-Catholic
first black to enter the University of Mississippi
James Meredith
Martin Luther King's most famous speech; where delivered
"I Have a Dream" delivered at the March on Washington in 1963
Alabama governor who tried to stop integration there
George Wallace
first American launched into space
Alan Shepard
first American to orbit the earth
John Glenn
tactic used by blacks to demand service at public places
sit-in where they remained seated even if denied service so no one else could be served
tactic used by blacks to promote integration on transportation
freedom rides-black and whites traveling together (integrated) in buses across the South. They were often met with beatings and the buses being burned
JFK's response to finding offensive nuclear missiles on Cuba in October 1962
a blockade or quarantine and negotiation
Russian (soviet) response to the Vienna meeting
they built the Berlin Wall to prevent communist-controlled East Germans (Berliners) from escaping to freedom in West Berlin
CIA-planned, failed attempt by the U.S. to oust Castro from power in Cuba
Bay of Pigs invasion
role of NASA and JFK's stated goal for it
ran the U.S. space program. JFK challenged NASA to land a man on the moon and return him safely to earth by 1970.
organization formed to allow volunteers to educate third world how to help themselves
Peace Corps
Democratic candidate election on 1960
John F. Kennedy
where Vietnam was divided in 1954
17th parallel
countries supporting each part of Vietnam
north (communist)-China and Soviet Union; south (free)-U.S.
leaders of North/South Vietnam
North-Ho Chi Minh South-Diem (others later)
leader of South Vietnam assassinated in 1963
Diem
who were the VC?
Vietnamese communists who were sneaking into South Vietnam and trying to destabilize the country
route by which the VC infiltrated South Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh trail, much of it hidden and underground
u.s. misconceptions about the problems in Vietnam
U.S. saw the war totally as a communist expansion problem that needed containing. However, the problems in Vietnam were a civil war and a religious war. Plus, Ho Chi Minh saw the war as one for Vietnamese nationalism and independence.
incident LBJ used to get congressional approval to carry on war in Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin incident in which the North Vietnamese opened fire on the Maddox, a u.s. ship
those favoring war in Vietnam
hawks
U.S. leaders: commander of troops, secretary of defense, and secretary of state
commander- William Westmoreland; defense-Robert McNamara; state-Dean Rusk
dominant U.S. weapons used in Vietnam war
bombs, rockets, napalm, Agent Orange, search and destroy missions
U.S. strategy in Vietnam
the u.s. tried to fight a conventional, front-line war, but had no real strategy. They simply wanted to contain communism from spreading into South Vietnam
North Vietnamese strategist in war
Giap
North Vietnamese strategy against U.S. in Vietnam
attrition-fight the U.S. in a guerrilla (hit and run) style until the U.S. tired and left (quit)
February 1965 attack LBJ used to justify sending U.S. troops to Vietnam
Pleiku
name for the U.S.'s sustained bombing of North Vietnam
Operation Rolling Thunder
LBJ's goals for Operation Rolling Thunder
he wanted: 1. to slow the VC infiltration along the Ho Chi Minh trail 2. force the North Vietnamese to the negotiation table
tactic used by LBJ at Christmas 1965 to end war---result?
he stopped the bombing of North Vietnam, but the North Vietnamese refused to negotiate
new South Vietnam president elected in 1967
Thieu
reports being given by U.S. officials in 1967
very rosy-that the end of the war was in sight
significance of the Tet offensive in January 1968
when the North Vietnamese (VC) attacked numerous cities all over South Vietnam at Tet (lunar new year holiday); it proved the war was far from over.
CBS newsman whose turning against the war affected LBJ
Walter Cronkite
those opposed to war in Vietnam
doves
new secretary of defense in march 1968-why he quickly turned against the war
Clark Clifford-left when he realized that the U.S. had no real strategy
significance of Hue and Khe Sanh
Hue-city destroyed during its retaking by U.S. | Khe Sanh-base surrounded by VC that LBJ feared would become another Dienbienphu (where North Vietnam defeated the French) even U.S. wins (hold outs) seemed to be losses
LBJ announcement on March 31, 1968
that he would not run for president again in 1968
significance of Democrat national convention in 1968
there were major riots in the streets as the Democratic party seriously divided over the war. The beating of kids in the streets made Democrats look bad on TV.
Republican candidate for president in 1968-why he won
Richard Nixon because he said he had a secret plan to end the Vietnam War
define: "peace with honor" "Vietnamization"
Peace with honor- the U.S. would be able to withdraw from Vietnam without looking like they were running out on a commitment. Vietnamization- turning the war over to the Vietnamese to fight
U.S. and North Vietnamese negotiators in Paris beginning in 1969
U.S.-Henry Kissinger; North Vietnam- Le Duc Tho
significance of Nixon's announcement about Cambodia in 1970
when he announced he was allowing U.S. troops to take out communist bases, Nixon appeared to be expanding, not decreasing, the war. Major demonstrations broke out on U.S. college campuses.
significance of events at Kent State in May 1970
National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting Vietnam and killed 4. The Vietnam War now produced a kind of civil war with Americans killing Americans over it on American soil.
significance of events involving Lt. William Calley and My Lai
Calley was the commander of a group of soldiers who were accused of massacring women, children, & old men in Vietnam, which seemed to go against the perception of Americans as honorable soldiers
man who exposed the Pentagon Papers
Daniel Ellsberg
significance of the Pentagon Papers
They revealed that the U.S. government through several presidential administrations had lied about the Vietnam War, especially how the U.S. got in and how we were conducting the war.
significance of January 27, 1973
a treaty was signed ending U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War
what ultimately happened to South Vietnam April 30, 1975
the communists took control of South Vietnam
define: Vietnam war syndrome
the U.S. fear that every war we have gotten into since then will turn into another war like Vietnam in which the U.S. gets bogged down and soldiers die for no apparent reason.
reasons world war seemed unlikely in 1914
1. TRs intervention in Europe for peace 2. basic prosperity and trade among nations 3. nations had earlier agreed to arbitrate differences 4. there had been no war in Europe for 100 years
4 overall causes of WWI
1. nationalism-extreme patriotism 2. imperialism-competition to take over lands worldwide 3. militarism-arming to carry on 1 and 2, especially in raising armies and navies 4. system of alliances
countries in the Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
countries in the Triple Entente
Britain, France, Russia
area called the "tinderbox" or "powderkeg of Europe"
Balkan Peninsula
immediate cause of WWI
the assassination of the Archduke of Austria-Hungary Franz Ferdinand by Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo, Bosnia
why the Serb killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand
fear his country would be the next taken over by Austria-Hungary
common ethnicity of Serbia and Russia
Slavic
leader of Germany during WWI
Kaiser Wilhelm
U.S.'s first reaction to the outbreak of war
neutrality (not taking either side)
how both Allies and Central Powers violated U.S. neutrality
both interfered with U.S. shipping and trade. Britain stopped them, but Germany sunk the Allied ships and killed Americans on board.
most potent weapon of Germany in WWI
U-boat or submarine
British ship sunk in May 1915 on which 128 Americans were killed
Lusitania
French ship giving its name to a promise by Germany to provide safety to Americans
Sussex
Wilson's slogan in the election of 1916
"he kept us out of war"
German announcement on February 1, 1917 that helped lead U.S. to war
that the Germans would no longer honor the Sussex Pledge, but instead would resume unrestricted submarine warfare
Mexican bandit with whom the U.S. had trouble
Pancho Villa
U.S. military man sent to Mexico to capture Pancho Villa
John J. Pershing
proposal made by Germany in the Zimmerman telegram/note
that Mexico and possibly Japan attack the U.S. and its interests to prevent the U.S. from sending troops to fight Germany in Europe
major reason Wilson said U.S. declared war on Germany in 1917
to make the world safe for democracy (freedom)
date U.S. declared war on Germany
April 6, 1917
1st female member of the House of Representatives who voted "no" on war
Jeanette Rankin
nations comprising Allies and Central Powers when U.S. entered the war
Allies- mainly Britain and France-Italy had been knocked out and Russia had dropped out; Central Powers- mainly Germany
condition of Allies when U.S. entered the war
Allies were losing; Germans were near Paris, France, and Britain was being starved by German U-boats preventing their getting food
name applied to U.S. military in WW I
AEF- American Expeditionary Force
names applied to individual U.S. soldiers
Yanks or dough boys
commander of U.S. forces
John J. Pershing
supreme commander of Allied forces
Marshall Ferdinand Foch of France
how the U.S. raised an army for the war
selective service (the draft)
how the war was financed
1. raising taxes 2. selling war bonds by Hollywood stars like Charlie Chaplin and Mary Pickford
famous song promoting U.S. in WWI
George m. Cohan's "Over There"
major WWI battles U.S. helped to win
1. Cantigny 2. Chateau- Thierry 3. Belleau Wood 4. Second Marne 5. St. Mihiel 6. Meuse-Argonne Forest
4 U.S.. heroes of WWI
Sgt. Alvin York-singlehandedly killed 20 Germans and captured 132; Eddie Rickenbacker- "ace" who shot down 26 enemy planes; Needham Roberts and Henry Johnson-both black heroes
purpose of War Industries Board and its leader
to convert American industries to make war materials--the leader was Bernard Baruch
how U.S. conserved fuel for the war effort
daylight savings time (moving clocks ahead or back an hour)
how food was conserved; leader of food administration
people grew victory gardens for extra food. people went without certain foods on certain days. leader was Herbert Hoover
purpose of the War Labor Board and its leader
to prevent workers from striking during the war. leader was William Howard Taft
leader of the Committee on Public Information; how loyalty was promoted
leader was George Creel. loyalty promoted by posters and movies. Also, an Espionage and Sedition Act restricted some freedoms, especially speech
date the armistice ended WWI
11:00 a.m., November 11, 1918. "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918"
President Wilson's peace plan-most important part
Fourteen Points. The 14th point proposed a "league of nations" to prevent future world wars
"Big Four" of the Versailles Conference
Woodrow Wilson- U.S. David Lloyd George-Britain Georges Clemenceau-France Vittorio Orlando-Italy
name of treaty ending war; description of provisions
Treaty of Versailles-harsh revenge treaty against Germany PROVISIONS: 1. Germany guilty for war 2. Germany to pay reparations for war 3. Germany lost land 4. German military reduced to only 100,000 5. Germany could no longer make war materials
term for war damages Germany was forced to pay
reparations
U.S. senator who opposed Wilson and the League of Nations
Henry Cabot Lodge
U.S. Senate's response to the Treaty of Versailles
they rejected the treaty, fearing loss of American sovereignty (U. S. ability to make independent decisions about when to go to war in the future)
how Wilson went around the Senate; the result
he appealed to the people to urge their senators to support the Treaty of Versailles. result-Wilson was exhausted and had stroke that paralyzed him for the rest of his presidency when his wife, Edith, took over
countries added/reinstated to map of Europe after WWI
reinstated-Poland added- Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
why Wilson did not run again for President in 1920
had a stroke and was too ill
winner-election 1920--what he promised
Warren G. Harding, a Republican, who promised a "return to normalcy" or a return to the old Republican ways and ideas--isolation in foreign affairs and businessmen's control domestically
treaty U.S. never ratified
Treaty of Versailles
world organization U.S. refused to join
League of Nations
Asian nation U.S. feared for expansion
Japan
disarmament conference-decisions
Washington Conference-main treaty was the Five Power Treaty which established a battleship ratio 5:5:3 for the U.S., Britain, and Japan in that order
treaty that outlawed war
Kellogg-Briand Treaty
they improved relations with Latin America
Henry Stimson and Dwight Morrow
new strategy by U.S. for Latin America
Good Neighbor Policy-established better relations with Latin America
secretary of treasury-reduced taxes
Andrew Mellon
high tariff of 1920s
Fordney-McCumber
Coolidge belief about business
"the business of America IS business"
business strategy to push people to buy
advertising and letting them pay for goods on credit (installments)
he invented quick freezing
Clarence Birdseye
invented cellophane
DuPont
new woman of 1920s
the flapper
female swimmer across the English Channel
Gertrude Ederle
WASP (White, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant) group of 1920s
Ku Klux Klan
1919-20 fear of communists in U.S.-attorney general and his treatment of suspected communists
Red Scare-A. Mitchell Palmer rounded up and deported (sent out of country) suspects
2 immigrants who symbolized U.S. feelings in 1920s
Sacco and Vanzetti who were executed because of a murder/robbery. However, most people believed the executions showed anti-immigrant feeling of the 1920s
major scandal of Harding administration
Teapot Dome, which involved allowing naval oil wells to be tapped for profit
cultural symbol of 1920s U.S.
the automobile
he made cheap cars--method he used
Henry Ford-the assembly line
entertainment mediums of 1920s-stars
radio, movies-early stars were Charlie Chaplin, Clara Bow, Rudolph Valentino
first "talkie" movie and star
"the jazz singer" starring Al Jolson
first commercial u.s. radio station
KDKA- Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, Red Grange
sports heroes of the 1920s: Ruth-baseball ;Dempsey-boxing; Grange-football
dominant music/musician of 1920s
Jazz-Louis Armstrong
dance of 1920s--other diversions
the Charleston; other diversions (fun things)-sitting on flag poles, eating live gold fish, playing tennis on airplane wings, yo-yo, mah-jongg, crossword puzzles
law that caused rise in crime
18th Amendment-Volstead Act-established prohibition of liquor
major gangster of 1920s-where lived
Al Capone-Chicago
where illegal liquor could be obtained
speakeasy
famous tradition vs. modernism trial of 1920s
the Scopes (monkey) trial, involving Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan
Sinclair Lewis, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald
writers: Lewis- satirized American culture in books like MAIN STREET, ARROWSMITH, DODDSWORTH. Hemingway-wrote about the senseless violence of war-disillusionment. Fitzgerald-THE GREAT GATSBY- THE book that represents life in the 1920s-materialism, cynicism, "what's the use" feeling
flew across the Atlantic to win contest
Charles Lindbergh
definition of mechanization-results of it on farms
use of machines, especially tractors on farms, result-need for fewer laborers and blacks continued moving north off farms
wanted blacks to return to Africa
Marcus Garvey
explosion of black culture
Harlem Renaissance-sociologist-E. Franklin Frazier writers- Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, Claude McKay. musician-Louis Armstrong-Jazz trumpet
president following FDR
Harry S Truman
famous sign on Truman's desk
"the buck (responsibility) stops here"
world organization U.S. joined after WWII
United Nations. The U.S. is one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council and has a veto power.
tension between U.S. & Soviet Union- 1945-1991
the Cold War-a struggle between super powers involving the spreading of culture and taking of territory
names for communist Russia
Soviet Union & Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
the appeal of communism
it appeals to those in poverty who have nothing to lose and everything to gain by turning to communism. Communists also use the half-truths of propaganda to make their claims more appealing
the propaganda of communism
1. they will provide a better life 2. they will treat all more equally 3. the U.S. is decadent (rotting) and power hungry
what Churchill said had fallen across Europe-1946
an Iron Curtain--the dividing line between a free western Europe and a communist-controlled eastern Europe
Truman's policy about communism
containment-do not let communism take over anymore territory
u.s. developer of the containment policy
George Kennan
Truman's doctrine about communism
Truman Doctrine-any nation threatened by communism would be helped by the U.S.
2 countries where Truman Doctrine was 1st applied
Turkey and Greece
plan that saved western Europe from communism
Marshall Plan, which was first announced at Delta State University in May 1947 and at Harvard in June
threat of cold war that limited its "hot" wars
nuclear war
what soviets did to Berlin in 1948-U.S. response
blockade-Berlin Airlift
U.S.-European military alliance-1949-1st commander
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 1st commander-Dwight Eisenhower
U.S.-Philippines relationship after 1946
on July 4, 1946, the U.S. gave Philippines independence
U.S. commander of Japan after WWII
Douglas MacArthur
what U.S. gave Japan/allowed Japan to keep
The U.S. wrote the Japanese a new constitution. They were allowed to keep Emperor Hirohito.
leader of Nationalist China-location
Chiang Kai-shek and it is located on the island of Formosa or Taiwan
communist leader of China after 1949
Mao Tse-tung (Zedong)
changes in Korea after WWII
divided into communist north and free south divided at the 38th parallel
June 25, 1950
communist North Korea attacked free South Korea
place to which North Koreans advanced in 1950
Pusan perimeter
UN commander-Korean war
Douglas MacArthur
place of surprise landing behind enemy lines
Inchon
What was the "great debate" in the Korean War?
whether to allow MacArthur to expand the war into communist China and potentially use nuclear bombs
unpopular Truman action against General MacArthur
Truman fired MacArthur when he appeared to be trying to undermine the president
President Truman's political program
the Fair Deal
candidates-election of 1948
Thomas Dewey-Republican/ Truman-Democrat/ Strom Thurmond-Dixicrats (States' Rights Party)
President Truman's stand on civil rights
in favor- he issued an order integrating the U.S. military
1st black pro baseball player
Jackie Robinson
status of women in economy after WWII
many continued to work, but most returned jobs to returning soldiers
what G.I. Bill allowed ex-soldiers to do
return to school paid for by the government
major concern/ actual problems postwar u.s. economy
major concern- Depression would return; actually-inflation and strikes only
act to limit union power after 1947
Taft-Hartley Act
vice president candidate controversy-1952
Richard Nixon-accused of using campaign money inappropriately
speech that saved Nixon's career in 1952
Checkers speech
winner-election of 1952-why
Dwight Eisenhower won b/c he was a successful general in WWII and b/c he promised to end the Korean War
Eisenhower's political philosophy and way of running administration
Modern Republicanism-mix of conservative and liberal team approach
Eisenhower's sec. of state--his ideas on communism
John Foster Dulles who said he wanted to roll back communism, i.e. free countries under communist control
2 European countries that rebelled against communists
Hungary and Poland-U.S. did not help them as they had been led to believe
theory that any nation allowed to fall under communism would lead to more doing so
domino theory
leader of an independent Vietnam-country defeated
Ho Chi Minh who defeated France in 1954
where Vietnam was divided after Dienbienphu
at 17h parallel into communist north and free south
nation returned to Middle East in 1948
Israel
Egyptian leader who closed the Suez Canal
Gamal Nasser
Eisenhower's response to the Suez crisis
U.S. sided with the Russians and condemned the attacks made by U.S. allies on Egyptian canal
basic idea of the Eisenhower Doctrine
Middle East oil supply would be defended from communist takeover by the U.S.
u.s. black who worked for peace in the Middle East
Ralph Bunche
why Latin America disliked the u.s. in the 1950s
they felt they had been ignored by the U.S.- no Marshall Plan money to build them up like U.S. did for Europe
1st Latin American nation to go communist-leader
Cuba in 1959 fell to communism under Fidel Castro
new Soviet leader after Stalin died in 1953
Nikita Khrushchev
Khrushchev's ideas about Cold War continuing
He proposed that the U.S. and Russia (Soviet Union) peacefully coexist, that the Cold War be thawed
word describing super rich Americans of the 1950s
affluent
new entertainment medium of the 1950s
television
new transportation system in U.S. in 1950s
interstate highways
where Americans moved to in the 1950s
to the suburbs, where shopping malls developed; people could have country living near the city
developed polio vaccine
Jonas Salk
Russian achievement that changed U.S. education
launch of 1st satellite-Sputnik. U.S. then changed education to emphasize science and math
1954 Supreme Court ruling about schools
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas- separate but equal no longer allowed- schools must integrate (desegregate)
Eisenhower's response to the Little Rock, Arkansas school crisis
used federal troops to protect black students entering Central High School
she refused to give up her bus seat
Rosa Parks to a white man
he led the boycott of the Montgomery bus system
Martin Luther King, Jr.
tactic blacks used to get service at public facilities
sit-in
problem that arose at the 1960 summit
an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over Russia during the meeting, which caused bad feelings between Eisenhower and Khrushchev. The pilot, Gary Powers, survived and the Russians used him to humiliate the U.S.
Eisenhower's warning as he left office
that a military-industrial complex was developing, i.e. that U.S was spending too much on weapons and that the outcome would possibly be another war
how LBJ became president
John Kennedy was assassinated
LBJ's qualifications for being president
he had served in Congress, where he was "master of the senate" and as vice president under JFK
personal description of LBJ
pure Texan-everything was big, his ranch and personality. however, more of a common man, less cultured than the Kennedys
2 men LBJ patterned himself after
Franklin Roosevelt and Sam Rayburn
most fitting political label for LBJ
liberal in the sense of seeing the government as a helper of the poor and uneducated and elderly
chief justice of a very liberal Supreme Court of the 1950's and 1960's
Earl Warren
determination of the Warren Commission
Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone killer of Kennedy
LBJ's 3 main goals
1. carry on JFK's programs, especially civil rights 2. get elected in his own right in 1964 3. carry on the New Deal program of FDR
LBJ's political program and vision of America
the Great Society-an America in which all poverty was eliminated and everyone had an equal chance to succeed
purpose of the Job Corps
to offer a second chance to dropouts and the unskilled to get training and qualify for a job
LBJ declared "war" on this
poverty
purpose of Medicare
to provide hospital and nursing home care to the old people of the U.S.-those over 65 years old.
purpose of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
to provide federal funds (money) to education
branch of government most active in black civil rights
judicial branch-the courts
difference between de jure and de facto segregation
de jure- segregation required by law; de facto- segregation that results by races naturally separating themselves
most famous civil rights protest song
"We Shall Overcome"
where fire hoses and police dogs were used on civil rights marchers in 1963
Birmingham, Alabama, under order of police chief "Bull" Conner
what happened at Philadelphia, Mississippi in the summer of 1964
3 civil rights workers were murdered by the KKK and their bodes buried in a dam. They were found because the FBI was able to get information.
she was "sick and tired" of being "sick and tired"; got blacks in Mississippi represented in Democrat Party
Fannie Lou Hamer
candidates of the 1964 election for president
Democrats- Lyndon Johnson-liberal Republicans-Barry Goldwater-ultra conservative
the 24th amendment abolished this for voting
the poll tax-money charged to vote
provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
blacks were granted equal access to public facilities, such as restaurants, movie theaters, hospitals, etc.
purpose of MLK's "March of Freedom" in 1965
to emphasize the need to register blacks to vote in the South
what happened at Selma during the "March of Freedom"
police ran over, beat, and drove black civil rights marcher at the Edmund Pettus Bridge
provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965
blacks could no longer be prevented from voting by barriers like the literacy test
civil rights groups formed during the movement
SNCC- student non violent coordinating committee/ CORE- congress of racial equality/ black panthers
new civil right leaders who opposed MLK's tactics
Stokely Carmichael, Malcolm X
idea phrased by Stokely Carmichael
"black power"
violent phrase early on popularized by Malcolm X
"by any means necessary"
most accepting of violence black group of the civil rights movement
Black Panthers
sites of major rioting in the middle and late 1960s
1965- watts in Los Angeles 1967- Newark, new jersey
effect of riots on white views of the civil rights movement
many whites hardened and stopped supporting black rights
when, where, who-death of Martin Luther King
April 4, 1968 in Memphis, TN, by James Earl Ray
when,where, death of Robert Kennedy
Los Angeles, California June 5-6, 1968 by Sirhan Sirhan, an Arab angry over Kennedy's support of the Jews
winner-election of 1928
Herbert Hoover
what happened to the stock market in October 1929
It crashed (lost value of stocks)
why the stock market crashed
people were speculating (gambling) on the market and buying stock on margin (credit) never paying full price, but borrowing from banks. This inflated values of stocks to ridiculous levels that had to come down.
other causes of the Great Depression
1. already depressed farm markets 2. overproduction by businesses and under-consumption by customers who had bought all they could and were no longer willing or able to buy more 3. pay gap which did not allow the middle class enough to sustain buying. 4. already depressed Europeans who were deep in debt to U. S. & the high tariff made it hard for them to repay debts 5. negligence of the federal gov't. in not regulating banks and the stock market
how Hoover dealt with the Depression
Hoover approached the Depression from the top by funneling (pump priming) money into big businesses and hoping it would "trickle down" to the workers, who would be hired back when businesses recovered.
veterans who marched on Washington in 1932 demanding early payment of the bonus promised them for service in WWI
Bonus Army, which was dispersed by the military
winner of the election of 1932
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who promised Americans a New Deal
FDR's handicap
paralyzed legs from polio
FDR's advisors
Brain Trust, made up of mainly Columbia University intellectuals
1st female Cabinet member
Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor
she was FDR's "eyes, ears, and legs"
Eleanor, his wife
what FDR said Americans had to fear in his first inaugural
"fear itself"
difference between FDR and Hoover Depression programs
Hoover appeared to people to do less to ease the Depression b/c he feared people would become too dependent on government; FDR was willing to try anything to ease the Depression & came across as more sympathetic to people's needs
what FDR closed after his inauguration
the banks
organization set up to protect bank deposits
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
how FDR kept the nation informed
fireside chats by radio
3 R's of the New Deal
relief, recovery, reform (in that order)
period of extreme congressional and presidential action to ease the Depression
the Hundred Days
nickname of eroding area of the Great Plains
the Dust Bowl, located in the central U. S. from Texas north
plan for helping the farmers
Agricultural Adjustment Act, which called for paying farmers to produce less
plan to get businesses restarted
National Industrial Recovery Act (NRA), in which businesses that participated would draw up codes of cooperation in place of competition and would display a blue eagle poster with the words "We Do Our Part"
early role of the Supreme Court in the New Deal
The Court early on declared the AAA and NRA unconstitutional
work camps for young men 18-25 years old
Civilian Conservation Corps
made-up work of the New Deal of little value
boondoggling
New Deal program to produce cheap electricity
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
major attack on FDR and the New Deal
FDR was becoming too much of a dictator and too socialistic by allowing the government to control so much of the economy
group of former Republicans who voted for FDR in 1936
blacks, who ever since have voted heavily Democrat
"Thunder on the Left" critics of FDR
Father Charles Coughlin, Sen. Huey Long of Louisiana, and Dr. Francis Townsend, who all wanted FDR to use the government even more to help the people
FDR's belief about labor unions
FDR believed the right of a worker to join a union should be guaranteed & that the unions should be able to bargain collectively to help all their members. This was passed in the Wagner Act.
new type of strike used in the 1930s
sit-down strike, in which workers sat down in the plants and refused to work but also refused to leave so substitute workers could not be brought in
WPA, NYA, REA, and CIO
Works Progress Administration provided work to white collar workers; National Youth Adm. provided work to youth to help them stay in school; Rural Electrification Adm. provided power to farms; Congress of Industrial Organizations was a new labor union led by John L. Lewis
FDR's mistaken plan to control the Supreme Court
the "court-packing" plan to add justices to the Supreme Court who liked the New Deal so they would stop declaring its acts unconstitutional
New Deal program to pay older workers to retire to free up jobs for younger workers
Social Security
evaluation of the New Deal
good-saved capitalism, put people back to work, built much infrastructure for the nation; bad-added much power to the federal gov't., made people too dependent on the gov't.
German leader and party in the 1930s
Adolf Hitler of the Nazi Party
Italian leader and party
Benito Mussolini of the Fascist Party
Japanese emperor
Hirohito
Japanese warlord/militarist leader
Hideki Tojo
September 1, 1939
World War II officially began in Europe when Germany attacked Poland
British leader who promised his people "blood, sweat, toil, and tears"
Winston Churchill
Nazi plan to invade Britain
Operation Sea Lion
German air force which bombed London during the Battle of Britain
Luftwaffe
technology that protected Britain from invasion
radar
to whom so much was owed by so many, according to Churchill
the RAF-Royal Air Force, which outfought the Luftwaffe
German submarine groups
wolf packs
FDR's unprecedented effort in 1940
ran for President for a 3rd term and won
Republican candidate in 1940
Wendell Willkie
phrase describing U. S. role of supplying Hitler's enemies
"arsenal of democracy"
program of U. S. supplying weapons to the Allies
Lend-Lease
island taken by the U. S. to protect the Atlantic supply routes
Iceland
document signed by FDR & Churchill stating Allied war aims in 1941
Atlantic Charter, which said the Allies were fighting 1. to save freedom and defeat dictators 2. not to take any country's land
event FDR said would "live in infamy"
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941
date of Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
wartime conference where it was decided that Hitler must be defeated first
Washington/White House/Christmas Conference of December 1941
site of early U. S. defeat in the Philippines
Bataan and Corregidor
he said "I shall return" to the Philippines
Douglas MacArthur
U. S. citizens who were put in detention/internment camps for national security
Japanese-Americans
German ally that Germany turned on and attacked in June 1941
Russia (Soviet Union)
Russian/Soviet leader and party
Josef Stalin of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
3 minority groups that aided the U. S. war effort
women, who served in non-combat positions; African Americans, and Native Americans, who were the code talkers (Navajo)
German known as "The Desert Fox" & where he was defeated
Erwin Rommel, who was defeated at the Battle of El Alamein in North Africa by British General Bernard Montgomery
British general who saved the Suez Canal for being taken by the Germans
Bernard Montgomery
where U. S. first landed troops in the European Theater
in North Africa near Casablanca in Operation Torch in November 1942
where Russians stopped the German attack on them
Stalingrad
wartime conference at which the Allies stated only "unconditional surrender" would be accepted from the Axis Powers
Casablanca, where it was also decided to attack Italy next after North Africa
U. S. general, tank commander, got into trouble for slapping incident
George S. Patton
wartime conference in which a date was set to open the Second Front by invading France
Tehran, Iran
Supreme Allied Commander in Europe who planned D-Day invasion of France
Dwight D. Eisenhower
June 6, 1944
D-Day invasion of the Normandy beaches of France in Operation Overlord
last German attempt to beat the Allies after their invasion of France
Battle of the Bulge
where Patton rescued a surrounded garrison
Bastogne (pronounced Ba stone)
wartime conference at which the decision was made to divide Germany into occupation zones and that Russia would join the war against Japan 3 months after fighting ended in Germany
Yalta
target of Nazi concentration camps and murder in Europe
Jews
some of the well-known concentration camps
Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Bergen-Belsen, Treblinka
site of Nazi trials/hangings after WWII
Nuremberg
the number term of office FDR won in 1944
4th
Hitler's end
by suicide on April 30, 1945
May 8, 1945
V-E Day in Europe following Germany's surrender
U. S. war strategy in the Pacific
island hopping
major island battles in the Pacific
1942-Guadalcanal; 1943-Tarawa & Saipan; 1944-Philippines; 1945-Iwo Jima & Okinawa
why the number of Japanese dead was so high
They believed surrender was dishonorable and that suicide was honorable.
scene of the flag-raising in the Pacific
Iwo Jima, which became the model for the Marine Corps monument in Washington, D. C.
Japanese suicide pilots
kamikazes
U. S. project to develop an atomic bomb
the Manhattan Project
scientists who developed the atomic bomb
Albert Einstein, who wrote a letter to FDR warning of German interest in splitting the atom; Erico Fermi, who created the first controlled nuclear chain reaction at the University of Chicago; and J. Robert Oppenheimer, who developed the bomb
April 12. 1945
FDR died
President who succeeded FDR
Harry Truman
WWI & WWII differences
WWI was more idealistic-good & bad guys on opposite sides; WWII was more practical-a dirty war to clean up dictators, although the U. s. was allied with a dictator in Russia
wartime conference in which Japan was given an ultimatum to surrender
Potsdam
why Pres. Truman used atomic bombs
to prevent the massive number of casualties predicted if Japan had to be invaded; possibly to warn Russian Communists not to mess with the U. S. after WWII
1st Japanese city bombed
Hiroshima on August 6, 1945
2nd Japanese city bombed
Nagasaki on August 9, 1945
September 2, 1945
V-J Day signifying Japan's surrender in Tokyo Bay aboard the U. S. S. Missouri with Gen. Douglas MacArthur in charge with Gen. Jonathan Wainwright, hero of Bataan, by his side