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Study questions for U.S. History state test

pre-Civil War most important economic segment


Mark Twain's term for the Industrial Era

Gilded Age

theory justification for unethical business practices

Social Darwinism

act that set up A & M colleges

1862 Morrill Act

how government helped promote industrialization

keeping tariff high & allowing lots of immigrants into the U.S. to be cheap labor for factories

where immigrants entered u.s.

Ellis Island

major inventions of the industrial era

cheaper steel/ light bulb/ cash register/ dictaphone/ mimeograph/ use of electricity

invented light bulb, phonograph, movies

Thomas Alva Edison

invented the telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

invented way to make cheap steel

Henry Bessemer

3 names for big businessmen

positive- captains of industry, industrial statesmen negative- robber barons

new form of business organization during industrial era


synonym for trust


America's first billionaire


drilled 1st oil well

Edwin Drake

John D. Rockefeller's oil company

Standard Oil of Ohio

Rockefeller's type of consolidation

horizontal; he consolidated the refineries

Carnegie's business


Carnegie's type of consolidation

vertical; he brought together entire companies from top to bottom

Carnegie's book and ideas

GOSPEL OF WEALTH: young men should get as much as possible early. old men should give away money to charity

where Carnegie's money went


a rich money donor


he bought out Carnegie

J.P. Morgan

tobacco monopolist


meat monopolist

Swift & Armour

growth of cities


problems of urbanization

crime/overcrowding/pollution/ shortages of water/traffic/slums/ghettos

new leisure activities of late 1800s

bicycle/boxing (no gloves)/baseball (no gloves)/basketball/vaudeville/reading

yellow press editors

Wm. Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer

wrote dime novels

Horatio Alger

description of working conditions in the late 1800s

horrible, bad relations with bosses, low pay, long hours, poor conditions, even hazardous

groups formed by labor to improve their lives


small, radical group who gave all union members a bad name

anarchists, who opposed government authority

peaceful means of negotiating labor disputes


stopping work to protest poor working conditions


a court order to return to work


president-used troops in the RR strike of 1877


strike-1892 Carnegie factory


3 major unions of the late 1800s

Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, American railway union

leader of the Knights of Labor

Terence Powderly

leader of the American Federation of Labor

Samuel Gompers

event that killed the Knights of Labor

Haymarket Square Riot 1886

RR car maker whose workers struck in 1894

George Pullman

public opinion of unions


1890 act making monopolies illegal

Sherman Antitrust Act

founded Hull House to aid city poor

Jane Addams

wrote a book to make people aware of poor living in slums

Jacob Riis


Henry George

wrote LOOKING BACKWARD, 2000-1887

Edward Bellamy

radical socialist; wrote THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO & DAS KAPITAL

Karl Marx

2 groups opposed to alcohol abuse

Women's Christian Temperance Union & Anti-Saloon League

transportation industry-problem for farmers


farmers' two major economic problems

railroad & money

farmer organization to fight RR

patrons of husbandry-the grange

founder of the Grange

Oliver Kelley

supreme court Grange case

Munn v. Illinois

1st national government attempt to regulate business

Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

government should stay out of business


increase in the money supply and an increase in prices


falling prices and a decreased money supply


farm term for government decision to coin only gold money

Crime of '73

metal farmers demanded coined to add to money supply


political 3rd party pro-silver farmers supported in the 1870s

Greenback Party

the farmer's complaint about the tariff

too high and made prices too high

2 businessmen who sold directly to farmers

Sears and Roebuck and Montgomery Ward

invented the steel plow; the reaper

plow-John Deere reaper; reaper-Cyrus McCormick

consolidator of the New York Central RR system

Cornelius Vanderbilt

inventor of the air brake

George Westinghouse

2 RRs composing the 1st transcontinental

Union Pacific and Central Pacific

immigrant workers on the 1st transcontinental RR

Irish, Chinese

builder of the great northern RR

James J. Hill

main thing Indians and whites differed about

land-the whites owned it and the Indians shared it

east U.S. chiefs who 1st tried to stop whites

Osceola, Tecumseh

areas set aside for Indians


current state many east U.S. Indians moved to


essential animal for plains Indians


Indian fighters in the west

George Custer, Nelson Miles, George Crook

Colorado-1864- Col. Chivington's attack/massacre

Sand Creek

Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse defeated George Custer

Battle of the Little Bighorn

Nez Perce-1500-mile retreat almost to Canada

Chief Joseph

Apache-1886-last major chief to surrender


1890-Ghost Dancers-last Indian uprising

Wounded Knee

act requiring Indians to live as whites

Dawes Act

writers of pro-Indian books

Helen Hunt Jackson, Dee Brown

state which was the center of the cattle industry


Chisholm, Shawnee, Western, Sedalia, Goodnight-Loving

cattle trails

Abilene, Dodge City, Cheyenne, Kansas City

cow towns

perfecter of barbed wire

Joseph Glidden

major effect of barbed wire

made ranching possible, ended the open range

famous marshal of Abilene

"Wild Bill" Hickok

famous outlaws of the west

Jesse James, Billy the Kid

famous women of the west

Annie Oakley, Calamity Jane

buffalo hunter; star of a wild west show

Buffalo Bill Cody

2 most precious metals to western miners

gold, silver

mining towns: 1) suddenly there 2) suddenly gone

1) boom town 2) ghost town

person(s) who take(s) law into own hands


act providing free land on the Plains

Homestead Act

reasons farmers moved to the Great Plains

Homestead Act-cheap (almost free) land to make new start, railroad promotion

problems farmers found on the Great Plains

insect plagues, weather extremes, lack of surface water, lack of timber, prairie fires

general condition of late 1800s U.S. politics


why politics was corrupt

Social Darwinism attitude of "all is fair," Laissez-faire-government stayed out of business; no rules during the Civil War spilled over into era after war

groups of crooked politicians who ran U.S. cities

political machines

most infamous political boss

William Tweed

cartoonist who exposed Boss Tweed

Thomas Nast

political scandal relative to the 1st transcontinental

Credit Mobilier

general/president whose administration had many scandals

Ulysses S. Grant

2 major political parties of the late 1800s

Republicans and Democrats

Republican platform

for business, gold, RRs, free western land, freed slaves, high tariff

"Don't vote Democrat-they are Southerners who started Civil War"

"waving the bloody shirt"

Democratic platform

for farmers, common man, immigrants, free silver, low tariff, "Solid South"

major political question of late 1800s

civil service reform-would people get government jobs because of spoils system (who you know) or merit system (what you know)

term for a government job

civil service

getting a government job by "who you know"

spoils system-also called patronage

getting a government job by "what you know"

merit system

Republicans who liked the old corrupt system

Old Guard; also called Stalwarts

Republicans who wanted reform


1st president to attempt civil service reform

Hayes, whose Sec. of Interior Carl Schurz 1st used the system

president killed by a disappointed office seeker

James Garfield

started a Stalwart; finished a Half-breed

President Chester Arthur

law requiring test for government jobs

Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883

2 major economic questions of the late 1800s

1. Would U.S. have gold standard or add silver to the money supply? 2. Would the tariff remain high or be lowered?

honest president-only Democrat of era-elected 2 times-not back to back

Grover Cleveland

Republicans who voted for Democrat Cleveland


grandson of pres.; allowed Billion Dollar Congress to waste money

Benjamin Harrison

3rd party of mainly farmers in election of 1892

Populist/Peoples Party

candidate of Populists in 1892

James Weaver

writer of Populist platform

Ignatius Donnelly

Populist platform

8 hour work day, graduated income tax, RRs to return land not used to build RRs so farmers could get cheap under Homestead Act, silver, government ownership of RR/telephone/telegraph, farm warehouses, direct election of senators

pro-silver Democrat in the elections of 1896, 1900, 1908

William Jennings Bryan

famous Bryan pro-silver speech in 1896

"Cross of Gold"

U.S. policy-no involvement in foreign affairs


policy of nations expanding and taking advantage of weaker areas

imperialism (expansionism)

U.S. belief it was meant to constantly spread westward

Manifest Destiny

why nations become imperialist

1. need for new markets 2. need for raw materials 3. dev. of repeating rifles/ machine guns to conquer people 4. need for naval bases for steamships 5. continuing idea of manifest destiny (spreading westward)

proponent of the "white man's burden"

Rudyard Kipling

connection of businessmen and imperialism

businessmen wanted new lands for raw materials to make new goods and to be new markets to sell them to

those opposed to U.S. imperialism/ why

Jane Addams, Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, Samuel Gompers and George Washington, who warned the U.S. not to get too tangled up with other nations' affairs. Many Americans felt imperialism violated the spirit of freedom established in the Declaration of Independence

importance of 1890 to U.S. imperialism

in 1890 the western frontier closed; there was no longer new land to settle. so in that year Americans began moving beyond our borders looking for new lands to take over.

American promoter of a strong U.S. navy

Alfred Thayer Mahan

promoted democracy and Christianity in OUR COUNTRY

Josiah Strong

island focus of the Spanish-American War


document prohibiting European involvement in Western Hemisphere

Monroe Doctrine

year of the Spanish-American War


letter which helped cause the Spanish-American War

De Lome letter

newspapers/editors whose lies led to Spanish-American War

yellow press editors-Joseph Pulitzer & William Randolph Hearst

U.S. ship whose explosion helped cause Spanish-American War

U. S. S. Maine

amendment opposing U.S. taking of Cuba in war

Teller Amendment

u.s. president reluctant to go to war with Spain

William McKinley

proof U.S. was not ready for war in 1898

1. wool uniforms to fight in a tropical climate 2. only 28,000 soldiers ready for battle 3. old weapons left over from the Civil War

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