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55 terms

rhetorical terms

test tuesday (mar 27)
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alliteration
Repetition of the same letter or sound within nearby words. Most often, repeated initial consonants

ambition should be made of sterner stuff
anadiplosis
Figure of repetition that occurs when the last word or terms in one sentence, clause, or phrase is/are repeated at or very near the beginning of the next sentence, clause, or phrase.

you all did love him once, not without cause. what cause withholds you then to mourn for him

if it were so, it was a grievous fault, and grievously hath Caesar answered it

our hearts you see not, they are pitiful; and pity to the general wrong of Rome as fire drives out fire, so pity pity
analogy
A kind of extended metaphor or long simile in which an explicit comparison is made between two things (events, ideas, people, etc) for the purpose of furthering a line of reasoning or drawing an inference; a form of reasoning employing comparative or parallel cases.
anaphora
is the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences, commonly in conjunction with climax and with parallelism

it will inflame you, it will make you mad

most high, most mighty, and most puissant
antithesis
Figure of balance in which two contrasting ideas are intentionally juxtaposed, usually through parallel structure; a contrasting of opposing ideas in adjacent phrases, clauses, or sentences

for antony is but a limb of caesar

lets carve him as a dish fit for the gods
apostrophe
interrupts the discussion or discourse and addresses directly a person or personified thing, either present or absent
asyndeton
consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses (and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet)

conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, shrunk to this little measure
chiasmus
do not repeat the same words and phrases, but invert a sentence's grammatical structure or ideas
epanalepsis
repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end. The beginning and the end are the two positions of strongest emphasis in a sentence, so by having the same word in both places, you call special attention to it
epistrophe
Figure of repetition that occurs when the last word or set of words in one sentence, clause, or phrase is repeated one or more times at the end of successive sentences, clauses, or phrases
euphemism
(Figure used to transform an unpleasant, distasteful or repulsive expression into more socially acceptable terms.
hyperbole
deliberate exaggeration of a person, thing, quality, event to emphasize a point external to the object of exaggeration; intentional exaggeration for rhetorical effect
litotes
a particular form of understatement, is generated by denying the opposite or contrary of the word which otherwise would be used

good friends, sweet friends, let me not stir you up

i am not well in health, and that is all
metonymy
substitution of one word for another which it suggests.

to beg the voice and utterance of my tongue
parallelism
Figure of balance identified by a similarity in the syntactical structure of a set of words in successive phrases, clauses, sentences; successive words, phrases, clauses with the same or very similar grammatical structure

and be silent, that you may hear
personification
Figure which represents abstractions or inanimate objects with human qualities, including physical, emotional, and spiritual; the application of human attributes or abilities to nonhuman entities.
polysyndeton
the use of a conjunction between each word, phrase, or clause, and is thus structurally the opposite of asyndeton. (and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet); the deliberate and excessive use of conjunctions in successive words or clauses

for i have neither writ, nor words, nor worth, action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech
rhetorical question
any question asked for a purpose other than to obtain the information the question asks
simile
Figure of explication in which two things that share at least one attribute are explicitly associated with each other; an overt comparison between two unlike things as though they were similar -- usually with the words "like" or "as"
synecdoche
Figure of comparison in which a word standing for part of something is used for the whole of that thing or vice versa; any part or portion or quality of a thing used to stand for the whole of the thing or vice versa -- genus to species or species to genus

friends, romans, countrymen, lend me your ears

brutus shall lead, and we ill grace his heels
anachronism
An event or detail that is inappropriate for the time period

caesar, 'tis strucken eight

count the clock
pun
A play on the multiple meanings of a word, or on the sound of a word
soliloquy
A long speech in which a character alone on stage expresses private thoughts or feelings
aside
A literary device in that an actor speaks to the audience; he/she is not heard by the other characters
ethos
speaker credibility; is the speaker well-informed of good will, good sense, and good moral character; citations or quotes of respected authorities
pathos
An emotional appeal; draws upon the audiences' feelings and sentimentality
logos
A logical appeal; draws upon the audiences' sense of reason using facts, statistics, evidence
irony
incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs
foreshadowing
the act of providing vague advance indications
ellipsis
ex when part of it is missing, bc they quote and somethings missing
fire dries out fire
so pitty pitty

caesar shall forth

which every noble roman bears of you
conceit
feathers plucked example
allusion
a short, informal reference to a famous person or event

fates, we will know your pleasures
imagery
Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
alliteration ex
"When to the sessions of sweet silent thought...."
andiplosis ex
My conscience hath a thousand several tongues,
And every tongue brings in a several tale,
And every tale condemns me for a villain."1 (Richard III, V, iii)
analogy ex
Writing a book of poetry is like dropping a rose petal down the Grand Canyon and waiting for the echo."
anaphora ex
"Mad world! Mad kings! Mad composition!" (King John, II, i)
antithesis ex
"Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more." (Julius Caesar, III, ii)
apostrophe ex
"Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art"
asyndeton ex
"Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, (missing "and")
Shrunk to this little measure?"He was a winner, a hero
chiasmus ex
It is boring to eat: it is fulfilling to sleep. (parallel structure)
It is boring to eat; to sleep is fulfilling
epanalepsis ex
To report that your committee is still investigating the matter is to tell me that you have nothing to report
epistrophe ex
I'll have my bond!
Speak not against my bond!
I have sworn an oath that I will have my bond."
hyperbole
ive told you a million times not to exaggerate!
litotes ex
Heat waves are not rare in the summer. (are common)
Hitting that telephone pole certainly didn't do your car any good. (damaged your car)
metonymy ex
The pen is mightier than the sword (Pen for words)
The orders came directly from the White House (White House for the president)
parallelism ex
She tried to make her pastry fluffy, sweet, and delicate.
Singing a song or writing a poem is joyous.
Perch are inexpensive; cod are cheap; trout are abundant; but salmon are best
personification ex
I can't get the fuel pump back on because this bolt is being uncooperative
polysyndeton ex
They read and studied and wrote and drilled. I laughed and played and talked and flunked
rhetoric question ex
For if we lose the ability to perceive our faults, what is the good of living on?
simile ex
My love is like a red, red rose —Robert Burns
The soul in the body is like a bird in a cage.
synecdoche ex
Listen, you've got to come take a look at my new set of wheels. (wheels is part of car)
anachronism ex
"Why are you walking about without a sign of you profession?" Act I Scene1
pun ex
...all that I live by is the awl..." "awl is took for repairing shoes, but is pronounce "all"
soliloquy ex
"To be or not to be that is the question..."
Hamlet , William Shakespeare