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Terms in this set (76)
-posterior (12 T-spine & Ribs)
-anterior (Sternum & costal cartilage)
-lateral (Ribs & muscles/membranes)
-superiorly (Thoracic inlet, sternum, 1st pair of ribs)
what forms the Thoracic cage (Border) :
what forms the Thoracic contents (Internal):
what forms the anatomy of the thorax?
what serves to prolong ribs forward & contribute to elasticity of the walls of the thorax
____ are the spaces between adjacent ribs
Muscles and membranes
keeps the intercostal space from blowing out or sucking in during respiration
-the chief muscle of INSPIRATION
-separates abdominal cavity from thoracic cavity -moves INFERIORLY on deep inspiration and SUPERIORLY on expiration
essentially a hole surrounded by a bony ring through which several vital structures pass that is bound POSTERIORLY to T1& ANTERIORLY to Manubrium
-Conical (forward axial inclination)
-apex in SUPERIOR and NARROW
-narrower ABOVE than below
-more WIDE than deep
-longer POSTERIORLY than anteriorly
-enclosed by DIAPHRAGM
describe the shape of Thoracic cage:
the lungs are made up of a spongy, elastic substance called __________ which allows for the expansion and contraction necessary for breathing of air to occur
what serves as bridge between trachea and lungs?
what lies in the middle mediastinum & rests on diaphragm, situated behind body of sternum?
what extends from HEART to L4?
Vena Cava (superior/inferior)
2 largest veins in the body is called _______
common trunk of all lymphatic vessels
-begins at C5/C6 & terminates at the Stomach at T11
-sandwiched between larynx/trachea and cervical/thoracic vertebrae
describe the Esophagus:
-protects the viscera (vital organs)
-Supports the shoulder
-provides attachment for 12 pairs of ribs most of which connect the sternum to vertebral column
-plays a role in breathing (serves as a expandable chamber...)
List the Purpose of the Thorax:
what serves as a expandable chamber where interior capacity expands & contracts during inspiration & expiration
-has LESS capacity
-sternum is SHORTER
-Upper ribs are MORE moveable
describe the FEMALE Thorax:
-has MORE capacity
-sternum is LONGER
-upper ribs are LESS moveable
describe the MALE Thorax:
-classified as flat bones
-supports the chest wall
-situated in an OBLIQUE plane
-attached to costal cartilage
-angled ANTERIORLY and INFERIORLY
describe the Rib anatomy:
1st - 7th pair
which Pairs of Ribs are considered TRUE Ribs that articulate w/ sternum via Costal cartilage?
8th - 12th pair
which Pairs of Ribs are considered FALSE Ribs?
8th - 10th
which Ribs are connected to the Costocartilage of the 7th rib
11th - 12th pair
which Pairs of Ribs are considered FLOATING Ribs that is connected posteriorly to thoracic vertebrae
Do not have:
what made the Floating ribs different to the True & False ribs?
Thick and rounded
the superior border of the ribs is ______ and ________
Convex & smooth
the External surface of the ribs is ________ & ________
located in the inferior and internal border of the ribs is the __________ that contains arteries, veins and nerves
the Head of the ribs is located on the ______ end
has ONE facet that articulates w/ T-1 ONLY!
describe the 1st rib head:
has TWO facets that is split w/ superior and inferior portions for articulation w/ more than one vertebral body
describe the 2nd - 9th rib heads:
each rib head has a single COSTAL facet
describe the 10th- 12th rib heads:
portion of the rib between the head and tubercle (flattened) anterior to the transverse process, lateral to the head where ligaments attach
portion of the rib between the neck and shaft
thin, flat and elongated portion of the ribs
Anteriorly(forward) and Inferiorly(downward)
the Rib angle is directed ________ & _________
-narrow FLAT bone
-approx. 6 inches in length
-located anteriorly & inferiorly, centered over midline
describe the Sternum:
-Body (Corpus or Gladiolus)
-Xiphoid process (Ensiform)
3 divisions of Sternum:
Corpus or Gladiolus
what is the other name for the Body of the Sternum?
what is the other name for the Xiphoid process?
Jugular notch , Suprasternal notch , Manubrial notch
manubrium sterni's superior border is called the _________, ____________, and also _____________
the manubrium contains an oval articular facet on each lateral superior border called _____________ which articulates w/ the sternal end of the clavicle
-articulates w/ Manubrium @ sternal angle (between T4 & T5)
-articulates w/ 2nd - 7th ribs
describe the Body of Sternum:
T4 & T5
the Sternal angle is located between __ & __
-distal end of the sternum
-variable in shape
-located at the level of T10
describe the Xiphoid process:
distal end of the sternum at the level of T10
where is the Xiphoid process located?
-supports the clavicle
-provides attachment to the costal cartilages of the first 7 pairs of ribs
Purpose of Sternum:
10 posterior ribs above the Diaphragm
which Ribs should be visible on PA chest view?
place LEFT shoulder in contact w/ grid, the LEFT hand on the hip w/ palm outward & RIGHT hand on top of the Grid
how do you position the shoulders & hands in LAO chest view?
-Apices of the lungs
-Conditions such as Interlobar effusions
-Clavicles lying Horizontally
what should be seen in AP Axial chest (Lordotic) view?
2 - 3"
how many inches should you elevate the body w/ radiolucent pad in Decubitus projection?
perpendicular and directed 3" below the Jugular notch
where should the CR be in AP Chest Decubitus projection?
perpendicular and directed @ the level of T7 (inferior angle of the scapula)
where should the CR be in PA Chest Decubitus projection?
left anterior ribs
what should be demonstrated in the RAO projection of the ribs?
right anterior ribs
what should be demonstrated in the LAO projection of the ribs?
Anterior Ribs 1-9 above the Diaphragm
what should be demonstrated in the PA projection Upper ribs?
place 1.5 " above the Upper border of the shoulders
how should the IR be adjusted in AP projection Upper ribs?
Posterior Ribs 1-10 above the Diaphragm
what should be demonstrated in the AP projection Upper ribs?
Posterior ribs 8-12 below the diaphragm
what should be demonstrated in the AP projection Lower ribs?
AP & PA Oblique Ribs projection
which projection can the axillary ribs be demonstrated?
OBL image of the Sternum projected over the heart
what should be demonstrated in the PA OBL sternum projection?
Lateral sternum projection
which projection will the entire length of the sternum free of superimposition be demonstrated?
Four quadrants method
midsagittal plane & horizontal plane intersect at the umbilicus and create bounderies
3 central regions of the abdomen:
-Right & left hypochondrium
-Right & left lateral
-Right & left Inguinal
9 regions of the abdomen:
double walled, seromembraneous sac
Mesentery & Omenta
inner layer of the peritoneum that is reflected over & around organs and forms folds called _______ & _______
the small space between the 2 layers of peritoneum is called _________
-bony framework is thick
-build is massive
-abdomen is long
-Gallbladder is HIGH & HORIZONTAL Away from the midline
-Colon is HIGH & EXTENDS to periphery of the abdominal cavity
-have a high diaphragm
-thorax is short, broad & deep
-pelvis is narrow
-only about 5% of the people fit into this category
-average in build (MODERATELY heavy)
-inner structure are as near as anatomical correct as they can be
-50% of the people fit into this category
-abdomen is MODERATELY long
-thorax is MODERATELY short, broad & deep
-pelvis is RELATIVELY small
-Extremely slender build (Frail)
-diaphragm is LOW and Abdominal cavity is SHORT
-stomach and Gallbladder are LOW, VERTICAL, and Near the midline
-colon FOLDS upon itself and lies LOW and toward the midline
-stomach is "J" shaped
-about 10% of people fall into this
-thorax is LONG &SHALLOW
-pelvis is WIDE
-this build is about half way BETWEEN sthenic & asthenic
-stomach is "J" shaped but not as much as Asthenic nor as low in the abdomen
-about 35% of all the individuals fit into this category
-Edge of the liver
what can be demonstrated in the AP abdomen (KUB) projection?
AP abdomen w/ CONTRAST
which projection can the:
-(left) proximal ureter
-(left) distal ureter
-(right) suprarenal gland
2" above the level of iliac crest
where is the CR located in the AP Abdomen projection (Lateral Decubitus) projection?
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