7 Written questions
6 Multiple choice questions
- Hernando was one of the first conquistadors who led armies into South America. Cortes managed to conquer Tenochtitlan after a failed first attempt and with the aid of smallpox he killed many of the Aztecs that lived there. Cortes advancement into South America allowed for other conquistadores or conquerors to make their way there also. Eventually Spain began to mine in South America and generated more gold and silver than was being mined in all the world's mines put together.
- People who wanted to further reform the Church of England and clamored for reforms that would purify the church. Many left England due to economic reasons, also.
- The half brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert who sent men to explore land along the North American coast and named Virginia in honor of Queen Elizabeth (the virgin queen). He soon led to the colonization of Roanoke. The first colonization failed when supplies were not sent to Roanoke on time and the settlers boarded the ships of Sir Francis Drake and left. The second attempt of colonization there that began where the original colony ended also failed when John White, the commander of the colonies' expedition, left for supplies and was unable to return for three years. By the time he got back the island was deserted and the only sign of life was the word "Croatoan" inscribed on a pole. AKA - Lost Colony
- A English explorer who was employed by the Dutch to find land for them. He sailed along the river now known as the Hudson River and helped the Dutch to claim the area now known as New York. The Dutch created a series of trading posts on the Hudson, Delaware and Connecticut Rivers to establish New Netherlands. The principal town of New Netherlands was New Amsterdam which was on Manhattan Island.
- A economic concept that believes that for one person or nation to grow rich it must be at the expense of another. This led to Europeans trading greatly throughout the fifteen and sixteen hundreds. It also led to colonization, nations looked for new products to trade from areas they could control because there was a need of resources and markets to increase money flowing to Parent Nation.
- England's first attempt at colonization began in Ireland. Rather than mix with those already living there the English created their own separate societies based upon those who emigrated from England. The English treated the Irish harshly, as they would do to Native Americans.
6 True/False questions
Prince Henry of Portugal & navigation schools → Prince Henry dedicated much of his life to the promotion of maritime exploration and helped Portugal become an early force in navigation. Portugal became home of Christopher Columbus and Magellan, two prominent explorers.Explored South along West Africa and around Cape of Good Hope to India.
The Spanish Armada → Radical Puritans who began their existence in the 16th century after England formed its own church. They determined to worship in their own independent congregation, despite English law stating that they must do otherwise. They did not want to leave the Church of England but simply change the Anglican forms of worship and reform church leadership. Eventually Puritans were antagonized and they sought new places for refuge. Puritans- left for Holland then to Plymouth.
John Calvin → A theologian who started the belief that God selected who would be saved and who would be condemned to damnation before their belief. Followers believed that those who existed wickedly or uselessly were those chosen for damnation and those who were successful and diligent were those who would be saved. This belief led many Europeans to try to lead virtuous and productive lives.
Coureurs de bois → The first French settlement in America which was established in 1608. Its population grew slowly but they were able to establish relationships with Native Americans. French Jesuit missionaries helped to establish those relationships.
St. Augustine → The first Spanish fort north of Mexico. It was a small military outpost located in Florida and founded in 1565. It was followed by colonizing in the Southwest. The first permanent European settlement in North America.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert → An early English pioneer of Colonization who was able to secure a patent to colonize in the New World. He led an expedition to Newfoundland but was lost at sea.