30 terms

Chapter 20

Digestive System Disorders
The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease may involve any of the following EXCEPT: (following below does involve)
-decreased resistance of the mucosal barrier
-increased stimulation of pepsin and acid secretions
-infection by H.pylori
increased stimulation of mucus-producing glands
What can be concluded if the hepatitis B antigen level remains high in the serum?
Chronic infection has developed
What is the likely effect of long-term exposure to a hepatotoxin?
gradual irreversible damage to the liver and cirrhosis
A primary factor causing encephalopathy with cirrhosis is the elevated:
serum ammonia
What is the primary cause of increased bleeding tendencies associated with cirrhosis?
deficit of vitamin K and prothrombin
What are the typical changes occurring with Crohn's disease?
inflamed areas of the wall of the ileum alternating with thick fibrotic or normal areas
How does iron-dificiency anemia frequently develop with ulcerative colitis?
chronic blood loss in stools
Dehydration limits compensation available for an acid-base imbalance resulting from prolonged vomiting and diarrhea because:
hypovolemia limits renal function
Which of the following is NOT a common predisposing factor to gastric carcinoma?( the following below are predisposing facts)
-ingestion of smoked foods
-genetic factors
-ingestion of foods preserved with nitrates
anti-inflammatory medications such as ASA
Which of the following frequently occurs 2-3 hours after meals in post-gastrectomy patients?
Which of the following are related to post-hepatic jaundice?
light-colored stools
Identify a major reason making it difficult to prevent the spread of Hepatitis B.
Infection is often asymptomatic
How does serum bilirubin change with cirrhosis?
increased conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin
Deficiencies of vitamins A, D, and K occur in patients with cirrhosis primarily because of decreased?
storage of all vitamins
Which of the following applies to gastric cancer?
Most cases involve an adenocarcinoma of the mucous glands.
Which of the following is/are (a)manifestation(s) of hemolytic jaundice?
increased unconjugated bilirubin in the blood
Which of the following applies to hepatitis A infection?
It is transmitted by the fecal-oral route
What is the likely effect of long-term exposure to a hepatotoxin?
gradual irreversible damage to the liver and cirrhosis
A primary factor causing encephalopathy with cirrhosis is the elvated?
serum ammonia
Which of the following is a major cause of primary hepatocellular cancer?
long-term exposure to certain chemicals
What causes massive inflammation and necrosis in acute pancreatitis?
activation and spread of proteolytic enzymes
Stools that are more liquid and contain mucus, frank blood, and pus are typical of:
ulcerative colitis
How may a fistula form with Crohn's disease?
recurrent inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis forming a connection between intestinal loops
With acute appendicitis, localized pain and tenderness in the lower right quadrant results from:
local inflammation of the parietal peritoneum
What would be the likely outcome from chemical peritonitis related to a perforated gall bladder?
leakage of intestinal bacteria into blood and the peritoneal cavity
In peptic ulcer disease, which of the following does NOT decrease the resistance of the mucosal barrier? (the following below does)
-prolonged vasoconstrition
-excessive glucocorticord intake
-proteases and cytotoxins from H.pylori
decreased vagal stimullation
An individual with peptic ulcer disease exhibits hematemesis. What does this probably indicate?
erosion of a large blood vessel
Which term refers to obstruction of the biliary tract by gallstones?
Which type(s) of hepatitis increase(s) the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma?
What is the initial pathological change in alcoholic liver disease?
accumulation of fat in hepatocytes with hepatomegaly