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Digestive System Disorders

The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease may involve any of the following EXCEPT: (following below does involve)
-decreased resistance of the mucosal barrier
-increased stimulation of pepsin and acid secretions
-infection by H.pylori

increased stimulation of mucus-producing glands

What can be concluded if the hepatitis B antigen level remains high in the serum?

Chronic infection has developed

What is the likely effect of long-term exposure to a hepatotoxin?

gradual irreversible damage to the liver and cirrhosis

A primary factor causing encephalopathy with cirrhosis is the elevated:

serum ammonia

What is the primary cause of increased bleeding tendencies associated with cirrhosis?

deficit of vitamin K and prothrombin

What are the typical changes occurring with Crohn's disease?

inflamed areas of the wall of the ileum alternating with thick fibrotic or normal areas

How does iron-dificiency anemia frequently develop with ulcerative colitis?

chronic blood loss in stools

Dehydration limits compensation available for an acid-base imbalance resulting from prolonged vomiting and diarrhea because:

hypovolemia limits renal function

Which of the following is NOT a common predisposing factor to gastric carcinoma?( the following below are predisposing facts)
-ingestion of smoked foods
-genetic factors
-ingestion of foods preserved with nitrates

anti-inflammatory medications such as ASA

Which of the following frequently occurs 2-3 hours after meals in post-gastrectomy patients?


Which of the following are related to post-hepatic jaundice?

light-colored stools

Identify a major reason making it difficult to prevent the spread of Hepatitis B.

Infection is often asymptomatic

How does serum bilirubin change with cirrhosis?

increased conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin

Deficiencies of vitamins A, D, and K occur in patients with cirrhosis primarily because of decreased?

storage of all vitamins

Which of the following applies to gastric cancer?

Most cases involve an adenocarcinoma of the mucous glands.

Which of the following is/are (a)manifestation(s) of hemolytic jaundice?

increased unconjugated bilirubin in the blood

Which of the following applies to hepatitis A infection?

It is transmitted by the fecal-oral route

What is the likely effect of long-term exposure to a hepatotoxin?

gradual irreversible damage to the liver and cirrhosis

A primary factor causing encephalopathy with cirrhosis is the elvated?

serum ammonia

Which of the following is a major cause of primary hepatocellular cancer?

long-term exposure to certain chemicals

What causes massive inflammation and necrosis in acute pancreatitis?

activation and spread of proteolytic enzymes

Stools that are more liquid and contain mucus, frank blood, and pus are typical of:

ulcerative colitis

How may a fistula form with Crohn's disease?

recurrent inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis forming a connection between intestinal loops

With acute appendicitis, localized pain and tenderness in the lower right quadrant results from:

local inflammation of the parietal peritoneum

What would be the likely outcome from chemical peritonitis related to a perforated gall bladder?

leakage of intestinal bacteria into blood and the peritoneal cavity

In peptic ulcer disease, which of the following does NOT decrease the resistance of the mucosal barrier? (the following below does)
-prolonged vasoconstrition
-excessive glucocorticord intake
-proteases and cytotoxins from H.pylori

decreased vagal stimullation

An individual with peptic ulcer disease exhibits hematemesis. What does this probably indicate?

erosion of a large blood vessel

Which term refers to obstruction of the biliary tract by gallstones?


Which type(s) of hepatitis increase(s) the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma?


What is the initial pathological change in alcoholic liver disease?

accumulation of fat in hepatocytes with hepatomegaly

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