59 terms

Poetic Devices

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Stanza
A group of lines forming a unit in a poem or song similar to a paragraph in prose
Example:
I set fire to the rain
watched it burn as I touched your face
Rhyme Scheme
The pattern in rhyme or verse which represents identical or highly familiar final sounds in lines of verse
Example: aabba in a limerick
Repetition
The recurrence of sounds, words, or phrases, lines, or stanzas used for emphasis
Example:
La La La
La La La
Refrain
A passage repeated at regular intervals, usually in a poem or song
Example:
Daba Daba daba Mo
Daba Daba Daba Mo
Imagery
Language the creates a sensory impression within the readers mind
Example:
reading while imagining in head how it is
Symbolism
The author's use of an object, person, place or event that has both a meaning in itself and stands for something larger than itself
:) stands for smiley face
Poetry
A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas
Roses and Violets are blue
Candy is sweet and so are you
Poet
The poet is the author of the poem
Speaker
The speaker of the poem is the "narrator" of the poem
Form
The apperance of the words on the page
Line
A group of words together on one line of the poem
Stanza
A group of lines arranged together
Couplet
A 2 line stanza
Triplet (tercet)
A 3 line stanza
Quatrain
A 4 line stanza
Setet (Sextert)
A 6 line stanza
Septet
A 7 line stanza
Octave
An 8 line stanza
Rhythm
The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem
Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration, and refrain
Meter
A patter of stressed and unstressed syllables
Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern
When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. They repeat the pattern in the poem
Foot-unit of meter
A foot can have two or three syllables
Usually consist of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables
Types of feet- The types of feet are determined by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables
Types of feet-
Iambic-unstressed, stressed
Trochaic- stressed, unstressed
Anapestic- unstressed, unstressed, stressed
Dactylic- stressed, unstressed, unstressed
Free Verse Poetry
Unlike metered poetry, free verse poetry does NOT have any repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Does NOT have rhyme.
Free verse poetry is very conversational - sounds like someone talking with you.
A more modern type of poetry.
Blank Verse Poetry
Written in lines of iambic pentameter, but does NOT use end rhyme.

from Julius Ceasar

Cowards die many times before their deaths;
The valiant never taste of death but once.
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard,
It seems to me most strange that men should fear;
Seeing that death, a necessary end,
Will come when it will come.
Rhyme
Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds.
(A word always rhymes with itself.)\LAMP
STAMP
Share the short "a" vowel sound
Share the combined "mp" consonant sound
End Rhyme
A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line
Hector the Collector
Collected bits of string.
Collected dolls with broken heads
And rusty bells that would not ring.
Internal Rhyme
A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line.
Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary.
From "The Raven"
by Edgar Allan Poe
Near Rhyme
a.k.a imperfect rhyme, close rhyme
The words share EITHER the same vowel or consonant sound BUT NOT BOTH
ROSE
LOSE
Different vowel sounds (long "o" and "oo" sound)
Share the same consonant sound
Rhyme Scheme
A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always).
Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually "see" the pattern. (See next slide for an example.)
Sample Rhyme Scheme
The Germ by Ogden Nash

A mighty creature is the germ, a
Though smaller than the pachyderm. a
His customary dwelling place b
Is deep within the human race. b
His childish pride he often pleases c
By giving people strange diseases. c
Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? a
You probably contain a germ. a
Onomatopoeia
Words that imitate the sound they are naming
BUZZ
OR sounds that imitate another sound

"The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of
each purple curtain . . ."
Alliteration
Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words

If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?
Consonance
Similar to alliteration EXCEPT . . .

The repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the words

"silken, sad, uncertain, rustling . . "
Assonance
Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry.

(Often creates near rhyme.)

Lake Fate Base Fade
(All share the long "a" sound.)
Examples of ASSONANCE:
"Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing."
John Masefield

"Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep."
- William Shakespeare
Refrain
A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem.

"Quoth the raven, 'Nevermore.'"
Lyric
A short poem
Usually written in first person point of view
Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes a scene
Do not tell a story and are often musical
(Many of the poems we read will be lyrics.)
Haiku
A Japanese poem written in three lines

Five Syllables
Seven Syllables
Five Syllables
An old silent pond . . .
A frog jumps into the pond.
Splash! Silence again.
Cinquain
A five line poem containing 22 syllables

Two Syllables
Four Syllables
Six Syllables
Eight Syllables
Two Syllables
How frail
Above the bulk
Of crashing water hangs
Autumnal, evanescent, wan
The moon.
SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET
A fourteen line poem with a specific rhyme scheme.

The poem is written in three quatrains and ends with a couplet.

The rhyme scheme is
abab cdcd efef gg

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date.
Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed;
And every fair from fair sometimes declines,
By chance or nature's changing course untrimmed.
But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st;
Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
NARRATIVE POEMS
A poem that tells a story.
Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry b/c the poet needs to establish characters and a plot.

Examples of Narrative Poems

"The Raven"
"The Highwayman"
"Casey at the Bat"
"The Walrus and the Carpenter"
CONCRETE POEMS
In concrete poems, the words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem.

Poetry
Is like
Flames,
Which are
Swift and elusive
Dodging realization
Sparks, like words on the
Paper, leap and dance in the
Flickering firelight. The fiery
Tongues, formless and shifting
Shapes, tease the imiagination.
Yet for those who see,
Through their mind's
Eye, they burn
Up the page.
Simile
A comparison of two things using "like, as than," or "resembles."

"She is as beautiful as a sunrise."
Metaphor
A direct comparison of two unlike things

"All the world's a stage, and we are merely players."
- William Shakespeare
EXTENDED METAPHOR
A metaphor that goes several lines or possible the entire length of a work.
IMPLIED METAPHOR
The comparison is hinted at but not clearly stated.

"The poison sacs of the town began to manufacture venom, and the town swelled and puffed with the pressure of it."
from The Pearl
by John Steinbeck
Hyperbole
Exaggeration often used for emphasis.
Litotes
Understatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic.

Ex. Calling a slow moving person "Speedy"
Idiom
An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says.

Ex. It's raining cats and dogs.
PERSONIFICATION
An animal given human-like qualities or an object given life-like qualities.

from "Ninki"
by Shirley Jackson

"Ninki was by this time irritated beyond belief by the general air of incompetence exhibited in the kitchen, and she went into the living room and got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy and never catches his own chipmunks, but who is, at least, a cat, and preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man with a gun.
SYMBOLISM
When a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else.
Lamb-innocence
Eagle-America
Dove-Peace
Allusion
Allusion comes from the verb "allude" which means "to refer to"
An allusion is a reference to something famous.

A tunnel walled and overlaid
With dazzling crystal: we had read
Of rare Aladdin's wondrous cave,
And to our own his name we gave.

From "Snowbound"
John Greenleaf Whittier
IMAGERY
Language that appeals to the senses.
Most images are visual, but they can also appeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste, or smell.

then with cracked hands that ached
from labor in the weekday weather . . .
from "Those Winter Sundays"
Parody
An imitation of the style of a particular writer, artist, or genre with deliberate exaggeration for comic effect
the movie is a parody of the horror genre
his provocative use of parody
monometer
one foot on a line
dimeter
two foot on a line
trimeter
three feet on a line
tetrameter
four feet on a line
pentameter
five feet on a line
hexameter
six feet on a line
heptameter
seven feet on a line
octometer
eight feet on a line
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