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Thee key themes of sensation

1. Transduction (translation of stimulus
energy into an electrical code/neural
impulse). Each sense system has receptor
cells (e.g., rods and cones in the eye)
2. Adaptation: senses are especially sensitive
to changes over time
3. Top-down and Bottom-up processing
How do your expectations and culture affect your
perceptions? Examples of top-down processing

Trichromatic Theory

3 kinds of cones sensitve to diff wavelenghts


low light, black and white, and periphery


Brighter light, color vision, centralized

color blindness

malfunction of cones

opponent process theory

receptor cells are linked in pairs, working in opposition in each other


some images seem to be oppisite

bipolar cells

recive info directly from ods and cones and send to ganglion cells

ganglion cells

collect and sumerize visual info which is moved out of the back of the eye through bundels of ganglion axons called optic nerve

simultanous contrast

objects look lighter against a dark background then against a light one

monocular depth cues

texture gradient distant objects seem denser

linear prespective

parallel lines appear to converge in the distance

realtive size

objects smaller

context effects

when our expectations influence what we precive

gate control theroy

spinal cord contains a nerological gate that blocks pain signals or allow to pass to the brain

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