AP Psychology Psychological Disorders and Therapy
Terms in this set (47)
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
a perspective on psychopathology that emphasizes the biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to mental illness.
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
a disorder in which intense anxiety or fear keeps a person from functioning normally
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes seperated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
dissociative identity disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
A humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger's beliefs that an individual has an unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way.
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
psychotherapy that seeks to extinguish or inhibit abnormal or maladaptive behavior by reinforcing desired behavior and extinguishing undesired behavior
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
therapy that confronts patients with what they fear with the goal of reducing the fear
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking through used of vitual images
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
regression towards the mean
the tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 dopamine receptors
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity. (rTMS)
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. the procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
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