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WHAP Unit 2: Post-Classical Era Terms
WHAP Unit 2: Post-Classical Era Terms Please look over each term to make sure it is as correct as possible ? = Unsure PLEASE CHECK THE INFO AND SEE IF ITS CORRECT AND FIX IT IF ITS NOT PLEASE! THANKS.
Terms in this set (81)
WHO: Arab Nomads
WHAT: Arab nomads who organized themselves into groups or clans.
WHEN: Around 600's ACE
WHERE: Middle East (Arabian peninsula)
WHY: Provided security for the Arab people by forming clans. Where Muslim empire started. They were the predecessors of the Umayidds, and the culture before Muhammad.
WHO: Islamic People, Arabs, Middle Easterners, African nations (some), Mallacans, Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Seljuk Turks, Sunni, Sh'ite, Umayidd, Abbasid, etc.
WHAT: A religion
WHERE: Middle East (dominantly Arabia), Spread to Spain, Africa, India (attempted) and southern Asian countries (Malacca).
WHY: One of the world's major religions that united the people of the Middle East through Muhammad's teachings and works. Created a strong Islamic empire that separated into Sunni and Shi'te people, which sparingly ruled the other. Spread to many regions, influence many regions (Africa, Asia, Europe), and caused many battles and conflicts (Crusades over Jerusalem, for example).
WHO: Saudi Arabians that Lived in Mecca, Umayidds, Muhammad.
WHAT: The religious central city for Islam.
WHEN: 500's ACE onward
WHERE: Saudi Arabia
WHY: Where the Umayidd's criticized Muhammad, up to the point that the latter had to escape to Medina. Was invaded by Muhammad and conquered, but open to anyone who revoked their original polytheistic religion.
WHO: Saudi Arabians
WHAT: A religious group originally believing in polytheism in Saudi Arabia.
WHEN: 500's ACE onward
WHERE: Saudi Arabia, Mecca, spread to Africa, Asia, and Spain.
WHY: Opposing for to Muhammad during the rise of Islam. Later would become Sunni Muslims due to conflicts over who should become a later caliphs (in the Umayidd's case, it should be the strongest to rule). Responsible for the spread of Islam far beyond the Middle East.
WHAT: The religious holybook of Islam
WHEN: 600's ACE
WHERE: Saudi Arabia
WHY: Originally a verbal message from the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad, it was the basis for the Muslim lifestyle and code of life that not only united the people but also provided a moral law.
WHAT: An office held by a caliph (a successor of Muhammad who ruled Islamic entities, but was not a prophet). Its like a dynasty, except instead of family rule, its a specific belief rules...
WHEN: 600's ACE (632 onward, as Muhammad died at this time and a new leader was to be chosen).
WHERE: Saudi Arabia at the time.
WHY: This entity ruled over Islam like a Pope of the Middle Ages. It was due to this office that Muslims were seperated into Sunnis and Sh'ites, as one believed that the most powerful should become a caliph, while the other believed that a descendant of Muhammad should.
WHO: Umayidds, Arabians
WHAT: A branch of Islam that believed that the most powerful Islamic entity should appoint a caliph
WHEN: around mid 600's ACE
WHERE: Saudi Arabia, expand with Umayidds.
WHY: Sunnis gained the first rule of Islam as the Umayidd empire. Invaded other political states for wealth, and eventually developed a system of taxing (Jizya) on those who weren't Muslim, but lived in Muslim grounds.
WHO: Saudi Arabians, expanded.
WHAT: A branch of Islam that believed that the descendant of Muhammad should be the caliph.
WHEN: around mid 600's ACE
WHERE: Saudi Arabia expanded.
WHY: Shi'ites were prosecuted by the Sunnis as the Umayidd imperium grew. However, due to uneven division of wealth and power, warriors, and shi'ites, tookover the Muslim empire again as the Abbasid empire.
WHO: Umayidds, Mawalis (Muslim converts), and Dhimmi's (non-Muslim people)
WHAT: A tax instituted on Mawalis and Dhimmis under Umayidd rule.
WHEN: Mid 600's ACE
WHERE: Saudi Arabia, conquered territories of Umayidd empire.
WHY: The Jizya was a strong source of income to the Muslims and control over the taxed. Allowed seperate faiths to exist under Islam.
WHO: Warriors, Arabians, Sh'ites
WHAT: An empire developed by Warriors and Shi'ites in response to inequalities given by the Umayidd empire (the Merv).
WHEN: 750 ACE
WHERE: Arabia, Northern Africa, Most of Spain
WHY: Overthrew the Umayidd rule and allowed more religious freedoms. Provided equal footing for Mawali people, expanded the merchant class, trade and such, as well as agricultural work. Improved art and culture. It created the first truly global civilization with its large connections. LITERATE! SAVED MANY WORKS OF OTHER CULTURES.
WHO: Abbasid people, sh'ites
WHAT: A city, almost a new political center for Islam, established by the Abbasid empire.
WHEN: Mid 700s ACE
WHERE: Arabia current day Iraq
WHY: Like constantinople; it was a large and powerful political center of the state, except this state was more theocratic.
WHO: Muslim people in the Middle East
WHAT: Following the conquering of Baghdad by the Persian Buyids, Seljuk Turks took the power.
WHEN: Mid 1050's ACE
WHERE: Middle East, Iraq
WHY: These people were Sunnis, and since they replaced the Sh'ite Abbasid empire, the whole view of the world changed again. They did however, manage to keep Byzantines from taking over Islamic land.
WHO: Muslims, Malaccans
WHAT: A type of Islam that taught strict interpretation of the religion, spirituality. In other words, they wanted direct union with god, denied pleasure, followed the five pillars strictly, etc.
WHEN: 1200s ACE?
WHERE: Middle East, Malacca?
WHY: Strict interpretation of the religion led to stronger views of the religion of Islamic societies, meaning that the Islam calphite would have more prominent rule.
WHO: Byzantine Empire, Western European Empire, Islamic Empire
WHAT: A series of expeditions launched in order to, at first take back the holy land of Jerusalem, than to conquer more land, than to retake the holy land again once they lost it to Salahadin, as well as a capture of Constantinople by the Western Europeans.
WHEN: Lat 1000's ACE... several centuries long
WHERE: First three crusades in the Middle East (objective), and the fourth one in Eastern Europe.
WHY: Provided the grounds of religious intolerance of Christianity and Islam that separated the regions strongly in the Middle Ages. To Europe, the people gained much technology, intelligence, and culture from the Muslims.
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