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Terms in this set (122)

Carl Rogers - Important components of personality are:
Self-concept - beliefs you have about yourself
-a persons explicit knowledge about their own behaviors, traits, and personal characteristics (student, independent, hiking club, tall, short)
-self-narrative, "self schema"
-usually not that accurate, generalized: people still have a strong sense of who they are even if they can't remember acting that way
-self-verification: the tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self-concept

The self-concept is a person's knowledge of self, including both specific self-narratives and more abstract personality traits/self-schemas. Develops thru social feedback, ppl confirm w/ self-verification.

Self-esteem - evaluation of our self-concept
-extent a person likes, values, and accepts the self
-high self-esteem results from being accepted + valued by others OR specific self-evaluation in different domains: looks, athletics, etc
-self-serving bias: ppl tend to take credit for success and downplay failure
-implict egotism: shown w/ name-letter effect
-we seek positive self-esteem to achieve perceptions of status, belonging, mortality

Unconditional positive regard - knowledge that you are accepted - helps us develop positive self-concept

Self-actualization - striving to reach one's inherent potential

Existential Approach: Focus on angst and defensive response people often have to questions about the meaning of life and inevitability of death
-(life is hard, ppl usually take up a "vice" like material possessions/drugs instead of facing reality) we must learn to confront reality and accept inherent anxiety of being human (philosophical view)

csikszentmihalyi "flow" experiencce
Dissociative disorder: lose of consciousness/memory, loss of identity, disruptions in identity
-->Amnesia
Single event or extended portion of time


1. Dissociative Amnesia
-Single event (abuse) or extended portion of time (war) (personal information)
-car accident, forgot what happened
- can't remember personally important information- still might know important events in history + facts, but not their name, friends names
-head injuries, alcohol

2. Dissociative Fugue
-Loss of memory for personal history, accompanied by an abrupt departure from home and assumption of new identity
Next level: complete assumption of a new identity, negative for head trauma: manifested no recall of previous history-not concerned by a total lack of remembering the past
-I don't know that women-wife
-stressful work problems, loss of staff in a brief time frame, withdrawn at home, violent argument with son: intolerable stress lead to dissociative fugue: forgot whole life
-very rare

3. Dissociative identity disorder
-Two or more personalities coexisting in one person
-Highly controversial, very rare
-used to be MPD multiple personality disorder
-more likely to be less than 1 identity: identity dissociated into separate parts with their own memories, traits, accents, sexes
-different identities proven to have different memory transfer: shown with a word pair test
-some level of implict memory is shared, with no ability to bring to conscious awareness: #2 personality could memorize faster than #1

STUDY: pretend to be this character, brain activity changes more extreme for dissociative identity disorder
-traits are foreign to normal identity -> transition of identity is abrupt and sudden

-In general, most are associated with traumatic (sexual) abuse: because of traumatic experience of child with emotions so it develops into an alternate identity to deal with it
-evdience of cardiovascular activity: one that didn't know showed no stress and low activity; other identity did
-super rare, one of the most rare: very controversial
-psychology tests are more subjective than medical tests

CONTROVERSIAL
-number of cases identified from the past has significantly increased
-Publication of books increased public awareness and movies
-DSM3 listed criteria for the disorder MPD
-DSM3 tightened schizophrenia criteria -->MPD went here instead
Artificial: Therapists look for it under hypnosis: If they suggest sexual abuse, personalities: 2 are reinforced via evidence
Freud
Recall his assumptions...
He thought therapy should allow patients to experience/express sexual and aggressive drives... to deal with unresolved conflicts
Doing so should help the patient
-deal w. unresolved conflict
-unconscious conflicts from unconscious desires --> problem. Cant deal with problem only, must focus on underlying cause

Central Techniques
1. Free association
-couch lying down, therapist sits and asks, say anything you think of, if I say such as such what do you think
-let your mind wander tell me whatever you think of
-unconscious let out
-freudian slip

2. Dream analysis
-our dreams are the result of unconscious drives, our wishes are repressed then RELEASED in dreams
-usually released in dreams in a disguised form: things that represent sex, aggression

Dreams contain both Manifest + Latent Content:
->Manifest content
-what we remember in a dream, "I picked apples in a orchid"

--> Latent content
-unconscious desire, what manifest content really means "tractor runs over basket of apples -represents desire for people to hurt me to be destroyed"

Criticism: who says what the latent content is?? Not reliable to interpretation of dreams

3. Resistance
-reluctance to cooperate with treatment due to the fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious issues
-could actually indicate the therapist is on the right track OR they could be way off track
-help indicate unconscious conflict

4. Transference
-Therapist assumes major significance in the clients life, so the client starts treating/reacting (transferred feelings for other) to therapist
-therapist can see how the client interacts w/ others
-encouraged, gives therapist better insight
-Classical and operant conditioning
-View abnormal behaviors as learned responses that can be changed by learning more adaptive responses

-Systematic desensitization
--->Train in relaxation
--->Construct an anxiety hierarchy
--->Pair the two together until you gradually desensitize

-don't care where the problem came from, just deal with the problematic behavior

-view as a large response: you have been reinforced for something we need to unlearn it and relearn a more adaptive response

-maladaptive that you cannot step outside your house: you've been inappropriately reinforced about the dangers of leaving your house

-Exposure therapy same idea without relaxation, keep exposing to try and learn to deal: used with PTSD treatment. Expose to horrors they went thru to replace horrific experience to be able to think and talk about it w/o same level of emotion
-habituation and response extinction
-use a exposure hierarchy

-systematic densensitization: train pt in relaxation techniques, various forms of mediation --> once patient is capable, anxiety hierachy is built

-you are scared of flying, lets build a hierachy from least fearful (thinking about flying) getting on computer booking a trip drive to airport getting on airplane liftoff, etc

-pair relaxation with anxiety hierarchy until desensization occurs (mentally go thru events, then actually go thru them)

-replace consequence of behavior with relaxation instead of stress, move closer and closer to thing your afraid of and replace fear response with relaxation so they learn nothing bad has happened I am still safe

-Behavior modification: Focuses on controlling behavior

1. Token economy
-tokens= reinforcements
-reward non-use of cocaine with vouchers exchange for bus pass, money, clotheds, etc: reduce cocaine use with reinforcement

2. Shaping
-reinforce behaviors slowly and gradually