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Chapter 5,6,7 APES Test
Terms in this set (105)
(5) How do each of the following biodiversity types support healthy ecosystem function..
Genetic, Species, Ecosystem Diversity
Genetic- Creates higher resistance and allows an ecosystem to sustain dmg
Species- allows species to survive environmental changes
Ecosystem- allows environment to sustain damage and organisms.
(5) Current estimate for the total number of species on Earth.
7 milion; hard to keep track because some aren't discovered and some are changing and new ones are coming.
(5) Difference between species richness/evenness
Richness is the abundance of one species while evenness is the diversity of species.
(5) How do scientists construct a phylogeny or phylogenic tree?
Tracking the heritage of organisms and species.
(5) Explain how genetic diversity is created through evolution.
Evolution increases the variety of animals that can survive ecosystem and environmental changes.
(5) How do humans shape species' evolution?
Destroying habitats and pollution.
(5) Describe the process through which allopatric speciation can produce new species.
First the species must be split into two by a geographic feature, then they will adapt separately creating new species.
(5) How can sympatric speciation occur if the individuals' population are not geographically isolated
There must be 2 distinct biomes of living next to each other. Then the species will adapt and create 2 different ones.
(5) Why is the speed of environmental change a critical factor in determining whether or not a species can successfully adapt?
It has to be slow enough to where the animal has appropriate time to adapt and quick enough to actually impose a change.
(5) How do a population's size and genetic diversity influence its ability to adapt to change?
Both will increase a species ability to adapt to new changes.
(5) How do a species' range of tolerance for various conditions determine its fundamental niche?
Narrows down options for a species niche. The closer to the optimal conditions for a specie a niche is, the more likely the organism will recognize it as a safe environment and its fundamental niche.
(5) Why don't species always use their full fundamental niche?
Because certain factors like competition predators and diseases that further the limit the physical location where it lives.
(5) Major differences between niche generalists/specialists.
Niche generalists can live in a variety of different habitats while specialists are specialized to only one habitat.
(5) How is global climate change expected to affect species distributions?
It could change the ecosystems and species fitting these ranges of tolerance will move there and those who don't will migrate.
(5Q) What is most significant when determining the diversity of an ecosystem?
The number of species present
(5Q) Which of the following are measurements used to measure diversity within an ecosystem?
I. Species wealth
II. Species richness
III. Species evenness
II and III
(5Q) Approximately how many total species have been identified by scientists?
(5Q) Which of the following is the best description of evolution?
The genetic change within a population over time
(5Q) If a bird that normally has green feathers produces offspring with blue, this is most likely the result of:
A genetic mutation
(5Q) Which of the following statements about mutations is incorrect?
All mutations are harmful
(5Q) When an organism has a trait that improves fitness for an environment, it is known as:
(5Q) Which of the following are processes through which evolution occurs?
I. Artificial selection
II. Natural selection
III. Genetic Drift
I, II, and III
(5Q) Which of the following is the best example of artificial selection?
Breeding of horses for speed
(5Q) Which of the following is NOT a key component of the theory of evolution by natural selection?
Differences in traits are not associated with differences in the ability to survive and reproduce
(5Q) When a population suddenly reduces in size either from habitat loss, natural disaster or other changes in the environment, its genetic variation is affected. When this occurs, this is known as
(5Q) A population of rabbits with typical variations of traits lives in a meadow with a depression that runs through the middle. Over time, the depression fills in with water and becomes a river, separating the one population into two over a period of several years. If these two populations speciate, this is an example of:
(5Q) Which of the following is NOT an example of geographic isolation?
(5Q) If allopatric speciation has occurred after a population has split into two distinct populations, what is the most likely result if the two species were reunited after many generations?
The two populations would not be able to interbreed
(5Q) Which type of species would be most vulnerable to environmental changes?
(5Q) Which of the following would not be considered when determining the fundamental niche of a species?
(5Q) How would a collision with a meteorite lead to a worldwide, mass extinction?
A large meteorite would produce a dust cloud that blocked sunlight, reducing photosynthesis
(5Q) Approximately what percentage of species that have lived on the planet are now thought to be extinct?
(6) Why is the exponential growth model usually insufficient to describe real populations?
Because it doesn't account for limited resources or potential dangers to a population.
(6) How does the population growth rate change as it approaches the carrying capacity of its environment, and why?
It changes because a population is near its maximum population potential with the same amount of resources so a population is no longer thriving but surviving.
(6) What factors prevent the continued growth of populations beyond the carrying capacity?
Limited sources like food, water, and shelter
(6) Why is population overshoot always followed by a die-off?
Because there aren't enough resources to support the population so a large portion of the populations die-off because the resources that are consumed are too divided among the population.
What does the intrinsic growth rate (r) for a species measure?
it measures the maximum growth potential for growth of a population in ideal conditions
large, few offspring, late maturity; slow reproduction rate; is at a greater risk for extinction
Small, short lives, many offspring; fast reproduction speed; are able to evolve faster
(6) Why can't two species simultaneously share the same realized niche?
two species cannot share the same realized niche because one will preform better than the other, driving the other to extinction.
(6) Why is resource pertaining advantageous for species that would otherwise be competing?
when species are competing their chances of survival weaken so a species will divide resources with another to insure their own survival.
(6) How could an ecologist identify a keystone species in any give ecosystem?
an ecologist can identify a keystone species by removing certain species out of the environment and seeing the effect that is done by removing the species
(6) Difference between secondary succession and primary succession
secondary succession happens in areas with soil but have been disturbed and primary succession is done in areas that are void of soil
(6) Why has the use of climax stage fallen out of favor among scientists?
because at any moment a forest is capable of restarting itself with a fire so their really is no climax stage
(6Q) The organisms that represent all of the different interacting species within an ecosystem make up a
(6Q) Which of the following is true?
Some populations grow without restraint as long as resources are not limiting.
The size of some populations tends to remain relatively constant over time.
Population size may vary sporadically in response to environmental changes.
In some populations size fluctuates in a cyclical pattern.
All of the above are true.
All of the above are true
(6Q) If a population of 100 birds increases to 120 birds the following year, the annual rate of growth is equal to __.
(6Q) At the start of a study there were 200 spotted salamanders in an old-growth forest patch in western Oregon. Over the next year a biologist tracking the salamanders saw that 25 new salamanders hatched and 5 died. The population growth rate for this year was __.
(6Q) The intrinsic growth rate (biotic potential) of a population
is the maximum rate at which a population may increase
(6Q) A population of rabbits introduced to an island has rapid growth for a few years, then its growth slows. The population becomes stable because
the carrying capacity has been reached
(6Q) Rapid growth may be temporarily be observed in a population in response to all of these EXCEPT
(6Q) When mosquitoes are very abundant, purple martins flock to the area and specialize on them. When mosquito populations are not large, purple martins are similarly scarce and feed on other insects. This is an example of
(6Q) In his 1798 book, An Essay on the Principle of Population, Thomas Malthus stated "...the power of [the Earth's human] population [to increase] is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man." He explained that our population increases exponentially while we can only increase our food supply linearly. Using our modern terminology, what did Malthus mean by "the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man?"
(6Q) A study conducted in the laboratory used wasps as predators and bean weevils as prey. The wasps lay their eggs on weevil larvae, which provide food for the newly hatched wasps. What would be the most likely hypothesis for the outcome of this experiment?
The two populations fluctuated synchronously.
(6Q) If a population of frogs is growing at a rate of 5% per year, how many years will it take to double in size?
(6Q) If a population of 1000 is growing at 2%, how many births must there be if there are 20 deaths that year?
(6Q) The biologist who studies interactions at the "community" level investigates interactions between
populations of more than one species.
(6Q) redation is similar to __________ in that both types of relationship benefit one of the interacting species while the other is harmed.
(6Q) If similar species each occupy a smaller niche when they live together than they would if they lived alone, they are said to be
(6Q) Which of these outcomes is likely in a natural situation when two closely related species compete for resources in the same habitat?
Population size and distribution of each species may be reduced.
(6Q) When competition occurs as an interspecies interaction,
Both species are harmed.
(6Q) Over the past century, sagebrush has dramatically expanded its range over the Colorado Plateau's grasslands. This has been attributed to the overgrazing of the area's grasses by cattle and sheep. This example indicates that
the range of sagebrush is normally limited by competition with grasses.
(6Q) Cucumber plants have evolved a number of chemicals to deter herbivorous insects. However, cucumber beetles have evolved ways to detoxify each new plant toxin as it has arisen. Which of the following statements can be deduced from this situation?
Cucumber beetles have come to specialize on eating cucumber plants and will likely not eat many other species of plants.
(6Q) A close interaction between two different species, in which one species benefits and the other is unaffected, is called
(6Q) Which of the following is NOT an example of two organisms in a mutualistic relationship?
humans and the protozoa that cause malaria
(6Q) A species that plays a major role in determining the structure of its ecological community is
a keystone species.
(6Q) A certain species of animal represents just 3% of the biomass in its ecosystem. We might classify this as a keystone species if its elimination
caused the diversity of the plant community to sharply decrease.
(6Q) When all vegetation is removed from a site by natural forces such as volcanic activity, __________ species are the first to colonize the site.
(6Q) Which of the following is NOT true of the general pattern of succession, from a recently disturbed terrestrial site to stable, self-sustaining forest community?
Total biomass tends to decrease.
(6Q) The first plant community that forms on bare rock often includes organisms such as
lichens and mosses
(6Q) After a forested area such as a national forest is clear-cut, what type of succession occurs?
(7) What types of environmental problems are being caused by China's large population growth?
China's large population growth has lead to problems such as overpopulation, lack of materials to support everyone living there, and considerable environmental problems as their affluence increases.
(7) What was Malthus' prediction about the carrying capacity of the Earth, and why was he wrong?
Malthus predicted that the population size would eventually reach its carrying capacity and then the population would decline. His theory was incorrect because the human intellect is high enough that as humans we would be able to adapt to the growing population in order to make ends meet.
(7) What do you think are major constraining li its on human population growth are? (the critical limiting resources that determine Earth's carrying capacity for humans)
A countries economic structure is a huge factor that plays into carrying capacity.
(7) Formula for calculation change in population size over a given period of time.
The global population growth rate = crude birth rates - crude death rates / 10
(7) What does the TFR of a country measure, and why is it an important demographic measurement?
The TFR measures the total fertility rate in a country. It is vital because it measures the amount of children a women could have during her childbearing years .
(7) Which regions of the world have SHORT life expectancies, which ones have LONG life expectancies, and what are the major factors that influence this?
Life expectancy is higher in countries with good health care. It is especially low in developing countries.
(7) What information do population pyramids show, and why are they important demographic information?
Population pyramids provide the key information on where the population is strong and where it is struggling to survive.
(7) What is underlying cause of demographic transition that most countries go through as they develop?
The countries must go through the process of industrialization, a shift in population growth .
(7) Stage I
Slow population growth at a nearly steady state.
(7) Stage II
Rapid population growth
(7) Stage III
Stable population growth
(7) Stage IV
Declining population growth.
(7) What major factors tend to reduce the number of children families have?
As the families income increases the fewer children they have. there are also links between higher levels of education and fewer birth rates.
(7) How do the annual population growth rates of developed countries compare to developing countries?
The developing countries are at a much higher population growth then the developed countries.
(7) Where is most of the future growth in the human population expected to happen?
China and India
(7) Why does calculation the per-capita ecological footprint for a country allow us to approximate the affluence level of the society.
It gives a way to measure goods, property and money.
(7) 3 Terms in the IPAT equation that affect a society's impact on its environment.
population- the more people the bigger impact you will have on the environment
affluence - this is created by economic
technology - this can go both ways, it can create a more eco friendly environment or it can degrade it.
(7) How can the technology factor of the IPAT equation work to either increase or decrease the impact of a society on the environment?
The technology can work in two ways it can create situations where the environment will benefit but also in the same process can degrade society.
(7) As a country develops economically, its impact on the environment shifts from local to global scales.
during the industrial revolution economies of individual countries became mixed and there economise intertwined.
(7Q) Thomas Malthus' ideas about the carrying capacity of Earth have been wrong so far in human history because...
Constant innovation has overcome environmental resistance to raise Earth's carrying capacity
(7Q) If the growth rate (r) of a population is positive and remains constant, the number of people added to the population...
increases each year
(7Q) The most critical factor to stabilizing human population growth is...
decreasing the average number of births per woman.
(7Q) The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) for a country is an estimate of...
the number of children each woman in a population will have.
(7Q) Under which of the following conditions would a population grow?
the birth rate exceeds the death rate and there is no immigration or emigration.
(7Q) Countries undergoing the Demographic Transition tend to have a(n) __________ age structure diagram.
(7Q) Populations with a (relatively) rectangular-shaped age structure diagrams have __________
a similar number of individuals in each age group
(7Q) Which of the following most closely represents replacement-level fertility in a population?
2.0 births per woman
(7Q) At present, Earth's human population is growing at approximately what rate per year?
Using the rule of 70, a country growing at 2% per year would double in
(7Q) Average global life expectancy is around ____ years, ranging from about ____ in Japan and Western Europe to ____ in many sub-Saharan African countries.
68; 80; below 50
(7Q) During stage II of the demographic transitions...
Birth rates remain constant while death rates fall
(7Q) The total environmental impact of a population is best measured by...
The IPAT equation
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