Chapter 5 AP Human Geography Review
Terms in this set (53)
the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way
A language that is written as well as spoken
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
A language composed of the Chinese and Tibeto-Burman languages
a sign or character representing a word or phrase, such as those used in shorthand and some writing systems.
A large language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia.
A large family of related languages spoken both in Asia and Africa, about 250 languages includes semitic languages ,Egyptian - [now extinct]; and is most common in north Africa, northeast Africa, and north parts of central Africa.
A language family which includes most of the languages of sub-Saharan Africa, including Swahili, Yoruba, and Zulu. Largest language family in Africa.
A family of languages consisting of most of the languages of Europe as well as those of Iran, the Indian subcontinent, and other parts of Asia, 50% of people on Earth speak this, most of language families.
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
British Received Pronunciation
The dialect of English associated With upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom
a person of mixed European and black descent, especially in the Caribbean.
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
a language that no longer has any speakers, or that is no longer in current use
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of francais and anglai." the French words for "French" and "English," respectively.
Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans.
combination of German and English.
Speakers of a language group found in India since earliest times; mostly spoken in South India today.
What are the two most spoken languages in the world?
Mandarin Chinese, and Spanish
What are the three branches of the Sino-Tibetan Family and what is the main language in each?
Tai-Kadai Branch: Tai Sinitic Branch: Mandarin Tibeto-Burman: Burmese
What is the major Afro-Asiatic language?
Where are Altaic languages spoken?
Turkey, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tatar, Russia
What are four language families in Africa?
Afro-Asiatic, Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, and Khoisan.
What are some countries and languages that are included in each?
Afro-Asiatic: Arabic and Countries of SW Asia and North America
Niger-Congo: Swahili most popular mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania
Nilo-Saharan: In North-Central Africa, no specific language
Khoisan: Southern Africa- Tswana, language is H
What language is spoken by approximately one-third of the people in India?
What language do most Pakistani's speak?
Why did it become important to speak Russian in Eastern European countries during the Soviet era?
Soviet Officials forced people to learn Russian in order to establish cultural unity among the different groups. Also, economy and politics in a lot of East Europe was Russian.
How did Czech and Slovak sports announcers deal with broadcasting for two languages?
They used one language the first half and the other the second half.
What are the four most widely used contemporary Romance languages?
They are Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Italian.
Why did major language differences develop in the countries formerly occupied by the Roman Empire?
The landscape hindered communication between places in the Roman Empire and therefore each area developed their own language.
Why have the Spanish and Portuguese languages achieved worldwide importance?
They achieved worldwide importance because of colonial activities of European speakers
90% of speakers live outside Europe (Central and South America) diffused by Spanish and Portuguese explorers division of Central and South America resulted from the Treaty of Tordesillas differs from Western Hemisphere and Europe.
Who were the three invading tribes that invaded England from Germany?
The Angles from Southern Denmark, Jutes from Northern Denmark, and Saxons from NW Germany.
What language did the Normans speak when they conquered England in 1066?
The Normans spoke French.
Name the three regions of dialect in England.
Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
In what three ways does U.S. English differ from that of England?
US English does not have
Describe the three original American settlements in the East stating specifically why each region spoke which language.
There were Puritans who came mostly from SE England. Quakers who were from the North of England. Lastly, Scots and Irish.
What are the three major dialect regions in the eastern United States?
The three major regions are New England, Southeastern, and Midlands
Why did the Gothic language disappear?
It disappeared because the descendants of Goths converted to other languages through the [process of integration. For example, many switched to latin after converting to Christianity.
The creation of what country is bringing back the Hebrew language?
When the country of Israel was established, Hebrew was named one of the official languages of the country. It was the only language that could unite all the people because most were familiar with it.
What is the reason for the decline of the Celtic language?
The speakers of Celtic languages fled to other regions and places and picked up the languages that were spoken there instead. This caused the decline of the Celtic language. Also a lot of the stuff taught in school was Welsh or other languages.
Why do the Belgians have trouble with their two languages?
They have trouble because they two languages separate them economically, politically, and regionally. Each group has conflicts with the other and both look for power. There is much Antagonism between the groups.
Where is Basque spoken?
It is spoken in Europe near the Pyrenees mountain range.
Why has Icelandic been preserved?
Norwegians were the first ones there. They brought their culture and language along with them. However, they had little interactions with other groups and cultures so Icelandic was preserved.
What is the lingua franca in East Africa?
English is the lingua franca in East Africa. It is the official language in most of east Africa.
Where do they speak Spanglish?
Spanish has become widespread in popular culture. It is seen in magazines, tv, and even songs. Most people in central America and parts of South America speak Spanish. Parts of Europe also speak Spanish.