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Arts and Humanities
Kippra is annoying
Terms in this set (55)
-a film speed rating similar to an ISO rating
-a numerical rating that describes the sensitivity to light of film or of a digital camera's sensor
-the ISO rating doubles as the sensitivity of light doubles
-a reflected-light exposure meter built into a camera to measure light directly from camera position
-to trim the edges of an image, often to improve the composition
-cropping can be done by moving the camera position while viewing a scene, by adjusting the enlarger or easel during printing, by using a cropping tool during image using a cropping tool during image editing, or by trimming the finished print
Depth of Field
-the area between the nearest and farthest points from the camera that are acceptably sharp in an image
-the smaller the aperture, the greater the depth of field
-the shorter the focal length of the lens, the greater the depth of field
-the father away you are from a subject, the greater the depth of field
-the amount of light reaching light sensitive material
-specifically the intensity of light multiplied by the length of time it falls on the material
-instrument that measures the amount of light falling on a subject
-measure the amount of light for a given film speed
-then they calculate f/stop and shutter speed combinations that will produce a correct exposure for a scene that has an average distribution of light and dark tones
-with manual exposure, you set both the shutter speed and aperture yourself. You can use a camera's built-in meter for manual exposure. Point the camera at the most important part of the scene and activate the meter.
-the viewfinder will show whether the exposure is correct. If the exposure is not correct, change the shutter speed and/or aperture until the exposure is correct.
1. a film, sensor, or paper that is very sensitive to light
2. a lens that opens a very wide aperture
3. a short shutter speed
1. the position at which rays of light from a lens converge to form a sharp image
2. to adjust the distance between a lens and image to make the image as sharp as possible
-a number that equals the focal length of a lens divided by the diameter of the aperture
-the farthest position on the distance scale of a lens
-when infinity is with in depth of field all objects at that distance and farther will be sharp
-the amount of over or underexposure possible without a significant loss in the quality of an image
-a piece or several pieces of optical glass
-shaped to focus an image or a subject
-to increase the size of a lens aperture
-opposite: stop down
Plane of Critical Focus
-the part of a scene that is most sharply focused
-a mechanism that opens and closes to admit light into a camera for a measured length of time
-a scene in which the background is lit more brightly than the subject
Single-Lens Reflex (SLR)
-a camera in which the image formed by the taking lens is reflected by a mirror onto a ground-glass screen for viewing
-the mirror swings out of the way before exposure to let the image reach the light-sensitive surface
-abbreviated SLR or (for digital cameras) DSLR
a) show you a scene directly through the lens
b) allows you to preview exactly what the lens is focused on
c) has one lens
d) has a mirror inside the body of the camera
-an image that is blurred or out of focus
-the relative sensitivity to light of film, darkroom paper, or digital sensor
-the relative ability of a lens to admit more light by opening to a wider aperture
1. an aperture setting on a lens
2. a change in exposure or illumination by a factor of two
-one stop more exposure doubles the light reaching a light-sensitive surface
-one stop less halves the exposure
-either the aperture or the exposure time can be changed
-to cause a flash unit to fire at the same time the camera shutter is open
-to give less than normal exposure to a sensor, film, or darkroom printing paper
9 Aspects of Photography
1) physics of light
2) science of chemistry
3) geographic dimensions of space
5) cultural, historical and social sensibilities
7) technical problem solving
8) mathematical proportions
Why Add a UV/Polarizing Filter?
-protect lens from scratches and dust
-increase contrast color and black and white images
Common Film Speeds
-100, 200, 400 ASA/ISO
Apertures are in F/Stops of
-f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22
ex. 5.6 = 1/2 of 4, 2x of 8
-the edges of an image
-to make several exposures, some greater and some less than the exposure that is calculated to be correct
-bracketing allows for error and permits selection of the best exposure post-development
-in an enlarged chemical-based image, a speckled or mottled effect caused by oversized clumps of silver in the negative
3 Ways to Shoot Motion
1. camera moves against a stationary subject
2. camera and subject are both in motion
3. camera is held still while subject moves
Rule of Thirds
-divide your images into thirds both vertically and horizontally into an overall grid.
-position major subjects in thirds rather than halves.
-in other words, do not center everything always. Do not cut a composition in half. Thirds are more attractive and more visually balanced.
-objects that are close together can be seen as a single shape.
-groupings can be visual as well as actual.
-aligning objects one behind the other, intentionally or not, can make a visual grouping that may be easy to overlook when photographing a fast-moving scene, but which will be readily apparent in a photograph.
-Front lit - light comes from camera position, few shadows.
-Side lit - light comes from side, shadows cast to side.
-Back lit - Light comes toward the camera, front of subject shaded.
-Direct light - hard-edged, often dark, shadows.
-Directional-diffused light - distinct, but soft-edged shadows.
-Diffused or revealing light - no, or almost no, shadows.
-Silhouette - subject very dark against light background.
-Glowing light - light comes or seems to come from the subject.
-a shape that is longer than it is wide.
-may be actual or implied.
-lines give direction by moving the eye across the picture.
-according to some theories, lines have psychological overtones, i.e. horizontal, calm, stability; vertical, stature, strength.
-the part of a scene that is near the view
-the background is part of the picture - obvious, but easy to forget.
-what do you do when your subject is in front of a less interesting or even distracting background?
-a busy background will call less attention to itself if it is blurred and indistinct rather than sharply focused.
-use the background when it contributes something.
-any defined area
-objects that are close together
-multiple spots, lines, or shapes can create a pattern that adds interest and unites the elements in a scene
-in life, a shape can be
-two-dimensional, like a pattern on a wall, which has height and width;
-or three-dimensional, like a building, which has height, width and depth.
in a photograph, a shape is always two-dimensional, but tonal changes across an object can give the illustration of depth.
-a single object standing alone draws attention to its shape,
-while two or more objects invite comparison of their shapes, including the shape of the space between them.
-the study of beauty
-a lens whose focus length is about the same as the diagonal measurement of the film or sensor with which it is used
-the angle of view with this combination of lens and light-sensitive surface size is roughly the same at a given distance as the angle that the human eye sees clearly
Wide Angle Lens
-a lens whose focal length is shorter than the diagonal measurement of the sensor or film with which is it used
-the angle of view with this lens-film combination is greater at a given distance than the angle seen by the human eye
-a single element of design seldom occurs in isolation.
-any shape, not necessarily a round one, can act as a spot or point.
-the eye tends to connect two or more spots like a connect-the-numbers drawing.
Emphasis & Balance
-how do you emphasize some part of a photograph or play down another so that the viewer knows what is important and what isn't?
-contrast attracts attention.
-viewers tend to look at the sharpest part of a picture first.
-you call attention to a subject by focusing it sharply while leaving other objects out of focus.
-a contrast of light and dark also adds emphasis.
-a small object can dominate a much larger background if it is of a contrasting tone or color.
-camera angle can emphasize a subject.
-shooting closer to an object will make it bigger while eliminating much of the surroundings.
-shooting from a slightly higher or lower angle will remove distracting elements from the scene.
-use surrounding parts of the scene to reinforce emphasis.
-objects that are of secondary interest, such as fences, roads, or edges, can form sight lines directed to the subject.
-the point at which two lines (real or implied) intersect attracts notice, as does the direction in which people are looking.
Contrast of Sharpness
-the sharpness of a photograph or of its various parts, is immediately noticeable.
-people tend to look first at the sharpest part of a photograph.
-depth of field affects sharpness from near to far.
-motion can be photographed either sharp or blurred.
-in a photograph, you can use a fast shutter speed to freeze the motion of a moving object.
-or you can use a slow shutter speed to deliberately blur the motion - just enough to indicate movement or so much that the subject's shape is altered.
-blurred motion can attract attention because it transmits information about how fast and in what manner the subject is moving.
-a gain in motion sharpness can mean a loss in depth of field.
-if you change to a faster shutter speed to render motion sharply, you have to open to a larger aperture to keep the exposure the same.
-since a larger aperture gives less depth of field, you may have to decide whether the motion sharpness is more important than the sharpness of depth of field.
-pictures that convey data are often sharp overall.
-even a still photograph can give an impression of time and movement.
-contrast in a photograph can be part of the subject.
Light & Dark
-contrast between light and dark draws a viewer's eye.
-light not only illuminates a subject enough to record it on film but by itself can be the subject of a photograph.
-contrast sets off one part of a scene from another.
-contrast between two objects may be more apparent in color than in black and white.
-a lens filter can adjust the relative darkness of different colored objects.
-a photograph may show shadows as darker than they seemed during the shooting.
-light along the edge of an object can make its shape stand out.
-shadows or highlights can be shown as separate shapes.
-you can adjust contrast somewhat during film processing, conventional printing, and digital editing.
Tone & Contrast
-High key - mostly light tones.
-Low key - mostly dark tones.
-Full scale - many tones of black, gray and white.
-High contrast - very dark and very light areas, with few middle grays.
-Low contrast - mostly middle grays.
-Emphasized - usually due to light hitting the subject at an angle.
-Minimized - usually due to light coming from the camera position
-Balance is an internal, physical response.
-Does the image feel in balance or does it tilt or feel heavier in one part than another?
Why do we use 400 ASA/ISO film speed as a general all-purpose film speed?
-Ideally, for maximum sharpness, you should choose the slowest film usable in a given situation.
-For practical purposes, however, most photographers load a medium-speed (ISO 100) film for general use.
-A higher speed (ISO 400) film will be their choice for dimly lit subjects or those requiring high shutter speeds
-For this class, you will use an ASA/ISO of 400 because it allows great latitude in outside and inside shots.
-For automatic focus, center the focusing brackets (visible in the middle of the viewfinder) on your subject as you depress the shutter release part way. The camera moves the lens for you, bringing the bracketed object into focus. Don't push the shutter release all the way down until you are ready to make an exposure.
-a lens adjustable to a range of focal lengths
-any lens of very long focal length
-one constructed so that its effective focal length is longer than its actual size
What is the slowest speed time a person can hold a camera steady and what should one do when the exposure requires a slower shutter speed?
-1/60 of a second
-use a tripod or flash unit
-the setting on a digital camera that adjusts the camera for the color temperature of a particular light source, such as tungsten or daylight
-with the correct setting, a white object will appear white, not tinged by the color of the light source
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