BSC1010 CHAPTER 22 TESTBANK
Terms in this set (66)
A model that assumes that evolution occurs in spurts, between which there are long periods of stasis with little evolutionary change.
biological definition of species
a group of organisms that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
recurrent isolation promotes
is the phenomenon where one species diverges into many by occupying a series of different habitats within a region
the process by which related species become more different in order to reduce competition
The model that assumes that evolution proceeds with slow successive change in a given evolutionary line is referred to as
The type of speciation that results in the formation of separate species as a result of geographic isolation is called
C. allopatric speciation
When species are kept separate by preventing the formation of hybrid zygotes, the mechanism that keeps the species separate is known as a _______________ isolating
A type of isolating mechanism that leads to reproductive isolation after a hybrid zygote has formed is called a ________________ isolating mechanism
Which isolating mechanism is postzygotic?
A. hybrid sterility
Evolution acts at the level of the
Hybridization regularly occurs between three species of Darwin's finches on Daphne Major, but the finches are still considered different species because
D. they occupy different niches
According to the Biological Species Concept, two groups of organism that are unable to form fertile, viable hybrids are considered to be different
In 1938, scientists found a population of coelacanths in the Indian Ocean. This fish species is considered a "living fossil" and appears not to have changed morphologically for 80 million years. This discovery supports __________ model of evolution
B. punctuated equilibrium
Scientists observed that marine bryozoan fossils lack intermediate forms. This evidence supports which hypothesis? Check all that apply
1. Evolution occurs in spurts, between which there are long periods characterized by little evolutionary change.
2. There is variability in the rates of evolution
If populations within the same area split into species, the process is known as
A. sympatric speciation
If species are competing for the same resource, one species is likely to go extinct through competitive exclusion, or natural selection will drive the evolution of
D. character displacement
Scientists found that different beak shapes lead to different mating songs in Darwin's finches. This result best supports which hypothesis?
B. Adaptation to different food sources indirectly led to behavioral isolation in Darwin's finches.
Once species have formed, they keep their identity by
C. isolating mechanisms
Many species might coexist in a particular environment by occupying ecological
Males of several marsupial species have forked penises that are incompatible with female placental mammals. This is an example of what type of isolating mechanism?
C. Mechanical incompatibility
22. Prezygotic mechanisms lead to reproductive isolation by preventing the formation of
23. In the southeastern U.S., two species of wild lettuce (Lactuca) do not usually form hybrids, because they bloom at different seasons. The means of isolation appears to be
B. prezygotic and temporal
The hundreds of species of Drosophilia in Hawaii exhibit different mating rituals. This isolating mechanism is
A. prezygotic and behaviotal
Select all of the following postzygotic isolating mechanisms
1. Hybrids are sterile
2. Hybrids develop abnormally
3. Hybrids fail to become established in nature
Scientists studying a group of related bird species on an island archipelago discover that these species are always more closely related to each other within an island than they are between any two islands. The most likely explanation for this result is that
B. one bird species colonized each island and then evolved into distinct species on that island through character displacement
Very rapid speciation occurred when cichlid fishes were isolated in Lake Victoria. Widespread extinction was dramatically seen when
B. Predatory fish were added
Species formation among alpine buttercups in New Zealand was promoted by
C. periodic isolation by glaciation
29. Studies of snapping shrimp on either side of the Isthmus of Panama have shown that each Caribbean shrimp species is more closely related to a Pacific shrimp species than it is to any other Caribbean shrimp species. The most likely explanation for this result is
D. snapping shrimp species diverged after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama
The sunflower species Helianthus anomalus is though to have been formed by hybridization between the sunflower species H. peioralis and H. annuus because it contains genetic material of both parental species. H. anomalus is most likely an example of instantaneous speciation through
Check all that apply: Members of the same biological species can
1. Have several isolated gene pools
2. Differ from other species in one or more characteristics
3. Interbreed freely with each other
Punctuated equilibrium proposed by Eldredge and Gould in 1972 is an evolutionary process that involves
B. "spurts" of change observable in the fossil record followed by periods of stasis
Select the concepts emphasized by Ernst Mayr's biological species concept. Check all that apply.
1. production of fertile offspring within the species
2. Reproductive isolation from other species
Two hundred years ago, the fly species Rhagoletis pomonella only laid its eggs on fruit of the hawthorn tree. Today, different "host races" of R. pomonella lay their eggs on hawthorns OR apples. Apples occur within the range of hawthorns, so divergence between apple flies and hawthorn flies could be the first step in sympatric speciation. Choose the evidence that supports that R. pomonella is undergoing sympatric speciation. Check all that apply.
1. Apple flies typically mate with apple flies, and hawthorn flies typically mate with hawthorn flies
2. Apple flies and hawthorn flies emerge from their hosts at different times of the year.
A virgin pine forest covers a valley, and one of the inhabitants is a red squirrel species. A large volcanic eruption occurs and separates the valley with a huge lava flow that the squirrels cannot cross, thus producing two isolated populations of squirrels. What change needs to occur for the two populations of squirrels to become separate species?
E. The two squirrel populations become reproductively isolated
Two bird species have different mating calls, occupy different habitats in nature, and when they hybridize, the hybrids are infertile. Which isolating mechanisms maintain these species?
A. ecological isolation, and hybrid sterility
Adaptive radiation is best described as the
A. existence of groups of closely related species recently evolved from a common ancestor
The most common mechanism for sympatric speciation in plants is
Lake Victoria is famous for its variety of cichlid fishes. In fact, they offer the most diverse assembly of vertebrates presently known to science. One trait that scientists have focused on as one possible reason for their adaptability is
B. a second set of jaws in their throats
Two populations that inhabit the same area but remain genetically distinct can be best called
The biological species concept of Ernst Mayr cannot be applied to
E. asexually-reproducing organisms
Indicate which examples would be considered different species under the Biological Species Concept. Check all that apply.
1. Two bear species that are able to breed in zoos but have separate ranges in nature
2. Two skunk species that look morphologically similar but are unable to interbreed
3. Two plant species with no gene flow between them
Which statement is true about speciation on island archipelagos?
B. Most speciation occurs allopatrically
Which form of speciation is most rapid?
C. sympatric speciation via disruptive selection
Several species of sea urchins may inhabit the same tide pool and their reproductive periods overlap. Although they practice external fertilization, they seldom interbreed because eggs produce chemicals that are only attractive to sperm of their own species. This is an example of a ____________barrier involving_____________.
C. prezygotic; gametic isolation
Many male songbirds have very distinctive songs that are used to attract females. These songs are an example of a(n)______________ isolating mechanism
B. prezygotic; behavioral
Due to character displacement, two closely related species may differ most morphologically when they
B. are sympatric
Several new tetraploid species of plant known as the salsifies have arisen in western North America. These new species arose from diploid species that went through the process of allopolyploidy. This mode of speciation is known as ________ and it occurs _______.
C. sypatric speciation; almost instantenously
Why do the Galapagos Islands and the Hawaiian Islands have so many endemic species of flies and birds? Check all that apply.
1. There are numerous islands in each archipelago
2. There is adequate distance between islands to allow divergence.
3. The founder effect was common when islands were colonized
Imagine two species of birds with similar beak size and diets. Where the two species are allopatric, we would expect that their beak sizes
B. should differ less than when sympatric
If two species are able to mate and produce an offspring which can mate with itself, but is unable to mate with either parent's species, it is an example of
C. sympatric speciation via polyploidy
If a new species is produced by the interbreeding of two members of distinct species, this would be __________ speciation achieved via ___________.
D. sympatric; allopolyploidy
Choose the factors contributing to adaptive radiation of Drosophilia in the Hawaiian Isands. Check all that apply.
1.New islands are constantly being formed
2. The islands are highly volcanic
Choose the true statements about the diversity of Darwin's finches on the Galapagos Islands. Check all that apply.
1. All of the finch species share a common ancestor that colonized the islands.
2. Competition among finches for food sources led to character displacement of beak shapes.
Which statements about the Lake Victoria cichlid fishes are true? Check all that apply.
1. The adaptive radiation of the estimated 300 species of cichlid fish was very rapid and took place during the last 200,000 years
2. The adaptive radiation of the Lake Victoria cichlids may have resulted from a key evolutionary innovation
3. Many of the Lake Victoria cichlids have very specialized adaptations that allow them to occupy diverse habitats within the lake.
Which statements about the adaptive radiation of New Zealand alphine buttercups are true?
1. Divergence occurred mainly during periods of glacial advance
2. The availability of a variety of habitats favored diversification
3. Reproductive isolation was reinforced mainly during periods of glacial recession.
Which statements about gradualism and punctuated equilibrium are true? Check all that apply.
1. According to the theory of punctuated equilibrium, evolutionary change occurs only during brief periods of speciation
2. Gradualism suggests that evolutionary change is not linked to speciation
Choose the best cause and effect sequence for the process of speciation by natural selection.
B. Mutation --> Variation --> Selection --> Reproductive Isolation --> Speciation
An example of temporal isolation would be
A. one plant species blooms in June-July and a second plant species blooms in August-September
Reinforcement is most likely to drive the evolution of
A. prezygotic isolating mechanisms, because selection favors alleles that prevent hybridization
Two species regularly come into contact and form hybrids that have higher fitness than either of the parental species. What are the possible consequences of regular hybridization between these species? Check all that apply.
1. evolution of a third species
2. extinction of the parental species
3. increased gene flow between the parental species
NASA Scientists send a small population of dogs to a new planet in order to test if it will be hospitable for human colonization. Through a random lottery, only Great Dane and St. Bernard dog breeds are sent, and the resulting population consists of tall, longhaired dogs. After 100 years these dogs return to earth and are no longer able to mate with earth
dogs. This scenario is an example of
A. allopatric speciation through genetic drift
Scientists investigating speciation in fruit flies divided a single population of flies into separate populations that each lived in their own cage on one of two food sources: maltose-
based food or starch-based food. After several generations, the flies' mate preference was tested, and it was found that flies strongly preferred to mate with other flies that were raised on the same food source. This results suggests that
A. selection on food source indirectly led to the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms
Indicate the scenario(s) that could directly result in sympatric speciation. Check all that apply.
1. Two sunflower species cross to form a healthy hybrid individual with equal copies of chromosomes from each parental species
2. A subset of parasitic flies within a larger population colonizes a new host plant
Select the reasons why adaptive radiations are often observed on remote volcanic islands. Check all that apply.
1. When a new volcanic island forms, there are many empty niches.
2. Only a few individuals reach remote islands
Diversification of mammals after the extinction of the dinosaurs is considered an adaptive radiation because a few mammal species rapidly evolved into most of the current mammalian lineages in a relatively short amount of time. This diversification was partially driven by the evolution of endothermic homeostasis in mammals, which is in example of
C. a key innovation
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