Instead, adults often provide indirect feedback about grammar by using two strategies, often in combination: recasts— restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form, and expansions— elaborating on children's speech, increasing its complexity ( Bohannon & Stanowicz, 1988; Chouinard & Clark, 2003). For example, if a child says," I gotted new red shoes," the parent might respond, " Yes, you got a pair of new red shoes." In one study, after such corrective input, 2- to 4- year- olds often shifted to correct forms— improvements still evident several months later ( Saxton, Backley, & Galloway, 2005). However, the impact of such feedback has been challenged. The techniques are not used in all cultures and, in a few investigations, had no impact on chil-dren's grammar ( Strapp & onchil-dren'sgrammar(Strapp& Federico, 2000; Valian, 1999). Rather than eliminating errors, perhaps expansions and recasts model grammatical alternatives and encourage children to experiment with them.