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North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries

Warsaw Pact

An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO

Berlin Wall

constructed by the German democratic republic, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin

Cold War

This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.

Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)

Chinese communist leader who won over China in 1949 (after WWII) and setup the People's Republic of China, a Communist government. He was supported by China's peasant population.

Guerilla war

The irregular combat in which a small group of combatants use military tactics in the form of ambushes and raids (hit and run tactics) to combat a larger, formal army

Red Guard

a radical political movement by Chinese youths who espoused Maoist principles

Chinese Cultural Revolution

Mao Zedong's Communist reform to change social, political, and economical ways in China

Great Leap Forward

Economic policy of Mao Zedong introduced in 1958; proposed industrialization of small-scale projects integrated into peasant communes; led to economic disaster; ended in 1960.


a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Deng Xiaophing

Chinese leader after Mao's death (1976).

Deng's Four Modernizations

Plan with changes in agriculture, industry, science and defense. Some free market ideas; government took some part of the business and business owners could sell the rest.

Tianamen Square

Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with a massacre

One baby policy

A program established by the Chinese government in 1979 to slow population growth in China (one child in city, two children in country).

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