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Sociology Chapter 15: Social Change and the Environment
Terms in this set (23)
the alteration of cultures and societies over time
The transformation of traditional societies into industrial societies.
Dialectical Process (of history)
Each arrangement of power (a thesis) contains contradictions (antitheses) which make the arrangement unstable and which must be resolved; the new arrangement of power (a synthesis) contains its own contradictions; this process of balancing and unbalancing continues throughout history as groups struggle for power and other resources.
The combination of existing elements and materials to form new ones; identified by William Ogburn as one of three processes of social change.
A new way of seeing reality; identified by William Ogburn as one of three processes of social change.
The spread of an invention or a discovery from one area to another; identified by William Ogburn as one of three processes of social change
Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations.
Another term for postindustrial society.
Marx's term for workers' lack of connection to the product of their labor; caused by workers being assigned repetitive tasks on a small part of a product—this leads to a sense of powerlessness and normlessness; others use the term in the general sense of not feeling a part of something.
A world system that takes into account the limits of the environment, produces enough material goods for everyone's needs, and leaves a heritage of a sound environment for the next generation.
Rain containing sulfuric and nitric acids (burning fossil fuels release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide that become sulfuric and nitric acids when they react with moisture in the air).
Refers to how minorities and the poor are harmed the most by environmental pollution.
Actions taken to sabotage the efforts of people who are thought to be legally harming the environment.
A specialty within sociology whose focus is how humans affect the environment and how the environment affects humans.
What major trends have transformed the course of human history?
The primary changes in human history are the four social revolutions (domestication, agriculture, industrialization, and information); the change from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft societies; capitalism and indsutrailziaton; and global stratification. Social movements indicate cutting edges of social change. Ethnic conflicts and power rivalries threaten the global divisions that the Most Industrialized Nations have worked out. We may also be on the cutting edge of a new biotech society.
What are the main theories of social change?
Evolutionary theories hold that societies move from the same starting point to some similar ending point. Unilinear theories assume that every society follows the same evolutionary path, while multilinear theories conclude that different paths lead to the same stage of development. Cyclical theories view civilizations as going thorough a process of birth, youth, maturity, decline, and death. Conflict theorists see social change as inevitable, because each thesis (basically an arrangement of p power) contains an antithesis (contradictions). A new synthesis develops to resale these contradictions, but it, too, contains contradictions that must be resolved and so on. This is called a dialectical process
What is Ogburn's theory of Social Change?
How does new technology affect society?
Because technology is an organizing force of social life, changes in technology can bring profound effects. The automobile and the microchip were used as extended examples. The computer is changing the ways we interact with on another, learn, work, do business, and fight wars. We don't yet know whether information technologies will help perpetuate or to reduce social inequalities on national and global levels.
What are the environmental problems of the Most Industrialized Nations?
Among the most serious of the environmental problems of the most industrialized nations is global warming, which is likely to have severe consequences for the world. Burning fossil fuels in internal combustion engines lies at the root of many environmental problems. The location of factories and hazardous waste sites creates environmental injustice, environmental problems having a greater impact on minorities and the poor.
Do the Industrializing and Least industrializing Nations have environmental problems?
The rush of the Least Industrialized Nations to industrialize is adding to the planet's environmental decay. The pollution in China is so severe that China now emits more CO2 than the US does. Environmental activist in China are arrested and imprisoned. The world is facing basic conflict between the lust fro profits though exploitation of Earth's resources and the need to establish a sustainable environment.
What is the environmental movement?
it is an attempt to restore a healthy environment for the world's people. This global movement takes many forms, from peaceful attempts to influence the political process to eco-sabatoge
What is environmental sociology?
not an attempt to change the environment, but, rather, a study of the relationship between humans and the environment. Environmental sociologists are generally also environmental activists
What is the goal of harmony between technology and the environment?
The goal of harmony is to control industrialization so it doesn't harm the environment, resulting in a world worth passing on to the next generation.
This set is often in folders with...
Chapter 12: Marriage and Family
Chapter 13: Education and Religion
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